Flashcards in Depression Deck (24)
How are depressive disorders all characterised?
A lowered mood and low energy levels.
The latest version of the DSM recognises what different types of depressive disorders?
- Major depressive disorder,
- Persistent depressive disorder,
- Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder,
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
How does the DSM categorise a major depressive disorder?
Severe but often short-term depression.
How does the DSM categorise a persistent depressive disorder?
Long-term or recurring depression, including sustained major depression.
How does the DSM categorise a disruptive mood dysregulation disorder?
Childhood temper tantrums.
How does the DSM categorise a premenstrual dysphoric disorder?
Disruption to mood prior to and/or during menstruation.
Which depressive disorder that is specific to women?
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (during menstruation).
Which depressive disorder that is specific to children?
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (during childhood).
What are the behavioural characteristics of depression?
- Activity levels,
- Disrupted sleeping and eating behaviours,
- Aggression and self-harm.
What are the emotional characteristics of depression?
- Lowered mood,
- Lowered self-esteem.
What are the cognitive characteristics of depression?
- Poor concentration,
- Dwelling on the negatives,
- Absolutist thinking.
What is psychomotor agitation?
When individuals become agitated and struggle to relax, they may end up pacing up and down.
How does depression affect activity levels?
Typically sufferers of depression have reduced levels of energy, making them lethargic. This has a knock-on effect, with sufferers tending to withdraw from work, education and social life.
Some cases can lead to psychomotor agitation which has the opposite effect.
How does depression affect sleeping and eating behaviours?
Depression is associated with changes to sleeping behaviour, sufferers may experience insomnia (reduced sleep) or hypersomnia (increased need for sleep). Appetite can increase or decrease which has an effect on weight change.
How does depression affect aggression and self-harming behaviours?
Sufferers are often irritable, becoming physically and verbally aggressive.
How does depression affect self-esteem?
Sufferers tend to report reduced self-esteem, this means they like themselves less than usual.
How does depression affect mood?
Depressed people have a lowered mood and experience a daily kind of experience of being lethargic and sad. Patients often describe themselves as 'worthless' and 'empty'.
How does depression affect anger?
Although sufferers tend to have more negative emotions during episodes of depression, this negative emotion is not limited to sadness. Sufferers may experience anger, directed either at themselves or at others.
How does depression affect concentration?
Depression is associated with poor levels of concentration, the sufferer may be unable to stick to a task and make straightforward decisions.
How does depression affect cognitive styles?
They tend to pay more attention to and dwell on the negatives, they also tend to show bias towards recalling sad events. They also adopt an absolutist thinking which means that everything is good-or-bad.
T / F:
Depression has an unpredictable effect on sleeping behaviours.
Depression is associated with changes to sleeping behaviour, sufferers may experience insomnia (reduced sleep) or hypersomnia (increased need for sleep).
T / F:
Depression has an unpredictable effect on weight.
Appetite can increase or decrease which has an effect on weight change.
What is self-esteem?
Self-esteem is the emotional experience of how much we like ourselves.