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PY5030 CNS and Mental health > Depression > Flashcards

Flashcards in Depression Deck (11)
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Different types of depression

Unipolar depression
Bipolar depression
Depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder


Unipolar depression

Mood swings in one direction
Most common
More likely to be environmental than genetic


Bipolar depression

Oscillations between depression and mania
Onset happens in adulthood
Strong hereditary tendency


Depressive disorder

Significant levels of sadness, low energy, low self worth, guilt


Major depressive disorder

Severe pattern of depression, disabling, not caused by drugs or medical conditions



Chronic and less disabling but similar to major depressive disorder


Ways to diagnose depression

1. Interview
2. Fill out a questionnaire
Score given tells you whether mild, moderate or severe
3. DSM diagnostic statistical manual - need to have five or more symptoms that have been present for two week period


Symptoms of depression

1. Depressed mood
2. Loss of interest/pleasure
3. Weigh loss/gain; increase/decrease in appetite
4. Insomnia/hypersomnia
5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation
6. Fatigue/loss of energy
7. Feeling of worthlessness or guilt
8. Less able to concentrate/think, indecisiveness
9. Recurrent thoughts of death
10. Loss of libido

- Need atleast 1 or 2 to be diagnosed with depression
- Need tohave five or more symptoms present for TWO week period


Factors affecting depression

- More likely in female
- First episode occurs in late adolescent early adulthood years
- May be co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders
- Causes hyperactivity of prefrontal cortex


Monoamine theory of depression

- Overall reduction in central monoamine NT i.e. 5-HT and NA


Evidence against monoamine theory of depression

- Difficult to show deficits of 5-HT and NA
- Would expects effects to be exhibited immediately but takes two-three weeks to show effects
- Cocaine blocks monoamine transporters so you'd expect it to have anti-depressive effects but it doesn't