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AQA A-Level Psychology Paper 1 > Depression > Flashcards

Flashcards in Depression Deck (17)
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Give examples of cognative characteristics of depression.

Cognative characteristics include:
- Negative, irrational thoughts.
- Loss of interest in life.
- Loss of interest in usual, everyday activities.


Give examples of behavioural characteristics of depression.

Behavioural characteristics include:
- Shift in activity levels (reduced or increased energy).
- Irregular sleep patterns.
- Change in appetite.


Give examples of emotional charcteristics of depression.

Emotional charcteristics of depression include:
- Sadness
- Anger
- Loss of pleasure from usual hobbies or activities


Who is credited with the 'Negative Triad'?

Aaron Beck (1967).


What does the negative triad state?

Negative views about the self lead to negative views about the world which lead to negative views about the future.
Beck said that this pessimistic view becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy leading to cognative bias.


Simply, what does the cognative approach say cause depression?

Holding negative schemata about the world, the future and the self.


Who is credited with the ABC model?

Albert Ellis (1962).


What does the ABC model state?

A = Activating event e.g death of relative
B = Belief ie. irrational thought
C = Consequence - Irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy emotion responses.


What is mustabatory thinking?

A source of irrational beliefs in which certain ideas and assumtions 'must' be true in order to be happy. e.g 'I must do well or succeed in this psychology test'.


Give some advantages to the cognative approach's explaination of depression.

- Supporting evidence for Beck's model - Clark & Beck concluded that cognative vulnerability was more common in depressed people.
- Cohen et al - 473 adolescents - early cognative vulnerability perdicted later depression.
- Produced many successful therapies i.e CBT and REBT.


Give some disadvantages to the cognative approach's explaination of depression.

- Blame the patient for the condition - situational factors may be overlooked - large burden of blame on a person susseptible to nagative schema.
- Difficulty establishing cause and effect - hard to determine if the mental illness causes the schematic errors or whether the schematic errors cause the mental illness - misdiagnosis.


What does CBT focus on?

CBT focuses on:
Affect - How a client feels
Behaviour - How they act
Cognition - How they think


What are the 3 steps to CBT?

1). Therapist and client work together to identify irrational thoughts.
2). Challenge these thoughts
3). Client will test the reality of their thoughts. They can do this by keeping a diary of their thought process or events that challenge their thoughts.


In REBT, what additions are made to Ellis' ABC model?

D = Disputing irrational thoughts. The therapist encourages the client to think of alternative explanations.
E = Effects of the new beliefs.


Which cognative therapy encourages 'Homework Tasks'?

Trick question! Both CBT and REBT ecurage homework tasks. These tasks include: putting themselves into stuations which they would have previously avoided, or talking to friends and family.


Give some advantages to cognative therapies for depression.

- Effective for a variety of mental disorders - Meta - Analysis from Engels et al - CBT can be used for depression, social phobia and OCD.
- More effective than drug therapy - Hollon et al
- Highly effective in the short term.


Give some disadvantages to cognative therapies for depression.

- March et al - CBT is just as effective as drug therapy (81% showed improvement) - Not worth it for the added duration.
- Lengthy process - average 10 weeks.
- Requires committment for the client - depressed people aren't really ambitious.
- High relapse rates - Shehzad Ali et al - 53% relapsed into depression following CBT