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Flashcards in Depressive Disorders and bipolar disorders Deck (40):
1

What are the two criteria for major depressive disorder?

A. One or more major depressive episode
B. There has never been a manic or hypomanix episode

2

What are the 3 criteria for a major depressive disorder?

A. At least 5 symptoms (one must be 1 or 2)
B. Symptomise last at least 2 weeks.
C. Cause distress

3

What are the 9 possible symptoms of a major depressive episode ?

1 deperessed mood.
2. Loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities.
3. Disturbance of appetite
4. Sleep disturbance
5. Psychomotor retardation or agitation.
6. Loss of energy.
7. Feelings of worthlessness and guilt.
8. Difficulty in thinking
9. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

4

What are possible makes signs of depression in children?

Separation anxiety.
Acting out behaviours.
Nightmares.
Physical complaints.

5

What are examples of masked signs of depression in youth?

Withdrawal or clinging to peers.
Substance abuse.
Risk taking behaviour.
Cutting.
Delinquent behaviour.

6

What is the onset of major depressive disorder like?

Gradual

7

What is the average length of a major depressive episode ?

4.5 months

8

Name five things that tend to mean that there is an increased chance of recurrence of a major depressive episode...

Prior episodes.
Early age of onset.
Stressful events.
Poor support.
Negative cognition.

9

What is the typical female onset of major depressive disorder?

15-19 yrs

10

What is the typical male onset for major depressive disorder?

25-29 yrs

11

What are the four specifiers for major depressive disorder?

Severity
Course
With seasonal pattern
With peripartum onset

12

What are the four criteria for persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia ) ?

A. Mild depressed mood lasting at least 2yrs.
B. Additional symptoms (at least 2)
C. There has never been a many or hypomanic episode.
D. The symptoms cause distress or impairment

13

What are the symptoms of persistent depressive disorder?

1. Poor appetite or overeating.
2. Sleep problems.
3. Low energy or fatigue.
4. Low self esteem.
5. Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions.
6. Hopelessness.

14

What are the possible biological causes depressive disorders?

Genetics
Neurotransmitters: depletion or imbalance of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. Or problems with receptors.
Brain anormalities: reduces activity in the prefrontal cortex associated with lack of motivation, reduced activity in anterior Cingulate involved in emotional expression and social behaviour, increase activity in the amygdala which helps direct attention to stimuli with emotional significance.

15

What does the sociocultural perspective look at as a possible cause for a depressive disorder?

Stressful life events.
Poor social support.
Gender issues.

16

What does the behavioural learning perspective look at as a possible cause for depressive disorders?

Unrewarding environment
Learned helplessness

17

What is becks cognitive triad?

Negative cognition about
Self
World
Future

18

What does tricyclic antidepressants do?

Blocks reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin

19

What do monamine oxidase inhibitors do?

Prevent enzymes that destroy nt.

20

What is normally the first antidepressant prescribed?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

21

What are 4 kinda of therapy of various kinds of depressive disorders that do not involve medication?

Electro-convulsive therapy
Phototherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy
Cognitive behaviour therapy

22

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: looking at things in black and white

All or nothing thinking

23

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: negative events as a never ending pattern of defeat

Overgeneralisation

24

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: dwell on the negative and ignore the positives

Mental filter

25

Insist that your accomplishments or positive qualities don’t count

Discounting the positive

26

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: conclude things are bad without any definite evidence

Jumping to conclusions

27

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: assuming that people are reacting negatively to yoh

Mind reading

28

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: predict that things will turn out badly

Fortune telling

29

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: blow things way out of proportions or shrink their importance

Magnification or minimisation

30

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: reasoning from
How you feel.

Emotional reasoning

31

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: You criticise yourself or other people with should. Shouldn’t. Musts . Oughts. And have tos.

Should statements

32

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: instead of saying “I made a mistake” you tell yourself “I’m a loser” or you level others

Labelling

33

What cognitive distortion does the following describe: you blame yourself for something you weren’t entirely responsible for.

Personalising

34

What are the criteria for bipolar 1 disorder

One or more manic episode

35

What are the criteria for a manic episode?

A. At least 4 symptoms (one is #1)
B. Symptoms last at least 1 week.
C. Impairment in daily functioning.

36

Symptoms For manic episode

1. Elevated or irritable mood.
2. Inflated self esteem.
3. Decrease need for sleep.
4. Talkativeness
5. Flight of ideas
6. Distractability
7. Increase in goal directed activity or psychomotor agitation
8. Reckless behaviour.

37

Criteria for bipolar 2

A. One or more hypomanic episode
B. One or more major depressive episodes
C. The individual has never had a manic episode

38

What is a hypomanic episode

Same symptoms as a manic episode
Minimum 4 days
No psychotic features
Mild or no impairment.

39

What are the three different patterns of bipolar

Manic. Normal. Depresses. Normal.

Manic. Depresses. Normal. Manic.

Manic. Depressed. Manic. Depressed.

40

What are the criteria for cyclothymic disorder

A. Periods of hypomanix symptoms.
B. Periods of depressive symptoms.
C. Lasting at least 2 years.
D. Never without symptoms for 2 months.