Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (88):
True or False: Epidermis is the outer layer of skin?
True: The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium (epithelial cells).
True or False: the hypodermis is between the epidermis and the dermis?
False: the dermis is in the middle
True or False: the skin is a living organ?
Name three functions of the skin?
1. Protective layer
3. Sensory organ
Referring to the epidermis: this means that new skin cells grow continuously from deep inner layers.
True or False: Epidermal cells have a lifespan of 120 days?
False: Epidermal cells have a life span of 35 - 45 days. The skin turns out about 500 million fresh new cells every day.
What kinds of cells make up the epidermis?
What do Melanocytes do?
Melanocytes are responsible for formation of the dark skin pigment, melanin.
Which layer has has a rich supply of blood vessels, nerve fibers and lymph. This rich capillary network plays an important role in temperature regulation?
Which layer contains the specialized skin structures such as hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands?
Which layer allows the skin to slide over the surface of bones and muscle tissue?
True or False: the subcutaneous layer is made up of proteins?
False: Loose connective tissue and Adipose tissue
What does adipose tissue do?
Adipose tissue provides protection, insulation and a source of energy.
What does the connective tissue do?
loosely attaches skin to underlying fascia.
What two main things should history focus on?
2. Family history
exposure risks both social and occupational, history of allergic responses, travel exposure, hobbies, relationship of symptoms to season, heat, damp, cold, associated constitutional symptoms such as fever, and recent drug, food exposures
What three things should the physical exam focus on?
1. location and distribution
2. configuration / pattern
3. character (what type of lesion)
Mix and match:
D. Generalized term for eruption
(1D) Rash = Generalized term for eruption of the skin
(2A) Pruritus = Itching,
(3B) Excoriation = Scratches,
(4C) Urticaria = Hives
Difference between a papule and pustule?
Papule - not filled / elevated skin lesion less than 0.5cm / not necessarily itchy
Pustule - filled
True or False: A macule is a raised skin lesion?
False: Flat skin lesion
The macule is recognizable as a skin lesion because it is a different color than the surrounding skin
The classic lesion of hives is called a?
A wheal is a rounded or flat-topped, firm elevated lesion that results from edema (swelling) of the dermis. Wheals are often pink with a whitish center.
True or False: A nodule is a marble like mass located in the epidermis?
False: A nodule is a marble like mass located in the DERMIS of SUBCUTANEOUS tissue ?
True or False: Psoriasis is a crust?
False: A plaque (with scales)
usually rough often formed by a coalescence of papules
What is another name for Uticaria?
What are vesicles and how big can they get?
Vesicles are blisters filled with clear fluid.A vesicle can be as large as a pea; when a vesicle is bigger than a pea it is called a bulla. (pl:bullae)
True or False: A Cyst is a hard nodule?
False: A Cyst is a Fluid filled nodule
Dried serous or purulent exudate on the surface of what was originally a vesicle, bulla or pustule is called what?
What is an erosive loss of portions of the skin including the epidermis and upper papillary dermis, it may extend into subcutaneous tissues as well?
True or false: Excema is skin inflammation?
True. also dermatitis
What condition is characterized by:
- Itching (pruritis)
Psoriasis or Excema?
1. Found in extensor
2. Found in flexor
Most common form of eczema?
Atopic: chronic, itching, thickening
Atopic Dermatitis vs Contact Dermatitis?
Atopic: most common
What skin condition does Type IV refer to?
Delayed hypersensitive contact dermatitis.
True or False: Poison Ivy is a form of Atopic Dermatitis?
False: Contact Dermatitis.
also - nickel, chromates, rubber adhesives and latex, plant oils (i.e. poison ivy).
A form of dermatitis characterized by redness and scaling where sebaceous glands are most active, typically face or scalp.
Dry skin and itching is one of the main symptoms of what skin conditions?
Eczema. Changes in skin moisture levels cause a reduction in the barrier function, which in turn increases water loss, thus allowing the penetration of irritants and allergens which trigger eczema.
What skin condition? Initial treatment: Saline compresses until dry, followed by medium-strength topical corticosteroids and emollients.
Eczema: Chronic eczema treatment: High-potency topical corticosteroids and emollients
What skin condition? High-potency topical corticosteroids and emollients
Chronic eczema treatment:
Wat si first line treatment for chronic skin conditions?
Topical Corticosteroids are a common first line treatments for chronic skin conditions
This treatment soothes and relieves the itch, producing an oily layer over the skin surface which traps water beneath it.
Use of emollients (aquafor, eucerin)
Psoriasis: Chronic or Acute?
Psoriasis: rated red plaques? true or false
Is psoriasis contact or genetic?
genetic - also arthritis correlation
- cold weather
Treatment of psoriasis?
1) Topical therapy, most common is corticosteroids
2) Calcipotriene is a form of synthetic vitamin D3 that slows down the rate of skin cell growth, flattens psoriasis lesions and removes scale.
3) Coal Tar
4) Topical tazarotene is the first topical receptor-selective retinoid
5) Methotrexate (Rheumatrex)***Liver
6) Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) Kidney
The chronic disorder is characterized by redness, pimples, flushing, burning and swelling - face and eyes
Common chronic skin disorder mostly affects women ages 30-60, face and eyes of fair skinned people.
Vascular rosacea causes persistent flushing and redness.
characterized by an enlarged, bulbous, and red nose ?
TX for what condition?
1) Topical antibiotic (redness remains)
2) Laser or electro surgery
3) Surgery (for Rhinopehyma)
True or false: Impetigo / Boils / Cellulitis / Acne are all bacterial infections of the skin?
This skin disorder shows up as small, sometimes itchy red sores that have a yellowish-brown crust. The blister fluid is highly contagious with either causative agent--staphylococcus or streptococcus-
Impetigo (near face, nose, mouth, neck and extremities)
True or false: ok to needle near impetigo lesions?
Treatment for impetigo?
Local bacterial infections, swollen, very tender nodule surrounding a hair follicle. It is usually pink or red. They are often under pressure and painful when touched.
They generally burst and heal within 2 weeks if they are not serious. However if on face or spine can be very serious.
A serious bacterial infection of the legs, especially near the shins and ankles. It appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender, and it may spread rapidly.
Left untreated, this skin condition may rapidly turn into a life-threatening condition. The two most common types of bacteria that cause this are streptococcus and staphylococcus?
Treatment for cellulitis?
This skin condition starts in the sebaceous hair follicles and ends up being uneven shedding of dead skin cells that become sticky and clump together to form a plug.
Topical retinoids / derivatives of Vitamin A
/ Benzoyl peroxide / Salicylic acid / Topical antibiotics
Treatment for acne
Acne that is severe?
Cystic Acne: Oral antibiotics plus topical retinoids or hormone therapy / Isotretinoin
a variety of fungal infections of the skin by a group of fungi
Clinical name for athletes foot?
Tinea pedis - can be treated with topical or oral antifungals
Another name for Tinea Corpis
Ringworm - Itchy
True or false: Tinea Corpis is not contagious.
False - Tinea corporis infections are contagious and can be passed by direct contact with affected individuals or by contact with contaminated items such as combs, clothing, shower, or pool surfaces and pets.
Tx of Tinea Corpis
Treated with topical antifungals.
A yeast and is a normal part of the skin flora.
shows up as red macular patches, grows best in warm, dark, moist environments.
Overgrowth is common in immunocompromised or immunosupressed patients
A type of infection caused by viruses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) family.
Tx of warts
Often go away on their own, but can be removed by freezing (liquid nitrogen),burning (cantharidin, salycilic acid) or surgery.
Small burning vescicles on an erythematous base. Around mouth and genitals.
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 - mouth
Herpes Simplex Virus 2 - genitals
Herpes Zoster (varicella-zoster virus) causes what skin condition?
Shingles (chicken pox virus)
Burning, tingling, numbness, a rash of small fluid-filled vesicles appears on reddened skin, may be accompanied by headache.
Lesion occur along a dermatomal distribution of a nerve root. A nerve infection with secondary skin manifestations.
Another name for a Nevus ? These are caused by a proliferation of melanocytes.
mole. 30 % of malignant melanomas emerge from a preexisting nevi
Vitiligo is a pigmentation disorder in which melanocytes in the skin are destroyed.
and white patches form.
A scar that usually develops after healing of a skin injury. The tissue extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Certain individuals genetically predisposed.
True or False: Lipomas are cancerous?
False: Lipomas is a benign tumors (neoplasm) of fatty tissue. They are moveable beneath the skin surface. They are painless and may slowly enlarge.
This is the most common and least aggressive malignant skin cancer that nvolves proliferation of the basal layer of the epidermis. Usually, but not always sun related. This lesion presents most often as a pearly or waxy papule with associated telangiectasias or areas of blood vessel enlargement.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
TX of Basal Cell Carcinoma.
An epidermal malignant tumor usually located on sun exposed areas especially the lip, face, ears hands and arms.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
True or False: SCC does not have a specific clinical appearance.
True or False: SCC rarely metastasizes
True although it accounts for 1/3 of all skin cancers. TX excision
The rarest (2%) of skin cancer but it is the most lethal.
Melanoma - a malignant proliferation of melanocytes.
True or False: There is no evidence that melanomas run in families.
TX of melanomas
- Lymph node dissection
Kaposi's Sarcoma is a symptoms of what other disease?
Advanced AIDS .
Bleeding may occur if lesions are traumatized