Dermatology Flashcards Preview

WPP II Final Exam > Dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (88):
1

True or False: Epidermis is the outer layer of skin?

True: The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium (epithelial cells).

2

True or False: the hypodermis is between the epidermis and the dermis?

False: the dermis is in the middle

3

True or False: the skin is a living organ?

True

4

Name three functions of the skin?

1. Protective layer
2. Thermoregulator
3. Sensory organ

5

mitotic

Referring to the epidermis: this means that new skin cells grow continuously from deep inner layers.

6

True or False: Epidermal cells have a lifespan of 120 days?

False: Epidermal cells have a life span of 35 - 45 days. The skin turns out about 500 million fresh new cells every day.

7

What kinds of cells make up the epidermis?

1. Epithelial
2. Melanocytes

8

What do Melanocytes do?

Melanocytes are responsible for formation of the dark skin pigment, melanin.

9

Which layer has has a rich supply of blood vessels, nerve fibers and lymph. This rich capillary network plays an important role in temperature regulation?

Dermis

10

Which layer contains the specialized skin structures such as hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands?

Dermis

11

Which layer allows the skin to slide over the surface of bones and muscle tissue?

Subcutaneous layer

12

True or False: the subcutaneous layer is made up of proteins?

False: Loose connective tissue and Adipose tissue

13

What does adipose tissue do?

Adipose tissue provides protection, insulation and a source of energy.

14

What does the connective tissue do?

loosely attaches skin to underlying fascia.

15

What two main things should history focus on?

1. Symptoms
2. Family history
Also:
exposure risks both social and occupational, history of allergic responses, travel exposure, hobbies, relationship of symptoms to season, heat, damp, cold, associated constitutional symptoms such as fever, and recent drug, food exposures

16

What three things should the physical exam focus on?

1. location and distribution
2. configuration / pattern
3. character (what type of lesion)

17

Mix and match:
1. Rash
2. Pruritus
3. Excoriation
4. Urticaria
________
A. Itching
B. Scratches
C. Hives
D. Generalized term for eruption

(1D) Rash = Generalized term for eruption of the skin
(2A) Pruritus = Itching,
(3B) Excoriation = Scratches,
(4C) Urticaria = Hives

18

Difference between a papule and pustule?

Papule - not filled / elevated skin lesion less than 0.5cm / not necessarily itchy
Pustule - filled

19

True or False: A macule is a raised skin lesion?

False: Flat skin lesion
The macule is recognizable as a skin lesion because it is a different color than the surrounding skin

20

The classic lesion of hives is called a?

Wheal
A wheal is a rounded or flat-topped, firm elevated lesion that results from edema (swelling) of the dermis. Wheals are often pink with a whitish center.

21

True or False: A nodule is a marble like mass located in the epidermis?

False: A nodule is a marble like mass located in the DERMIS of SUBCUTANEOUS tissue ?

22

True or False: Psoriasis is a crust?

False: A plaque (with scales)
usually rough often formed by a coalescence of papules

23

What is another name for Uticaria?

Hives

24

What are vesicles and how big can they get?

Vesicles are blisters filled with clear fluid.A vesicle can be as large as a pea; when a vesicle is bigger than a pea it is called a bulla. (pl:bullae)

25

True or False: A Cyst is a hard nodule?

False: A Cyst is a Fluid filled nodule

26

Dried serous or purulent exudate on the surface of what was originally a vesicle, bulla or pustule is called what?

Crust

27

What is an erosive loss of portions of the skin including the epidermis and upper papillary dermis, it may extend into subcutaneous tissues as well?

An ulcer

28

True or false: Excema is skin inflammation?

True. also dermatitis

29

What condition is characterized by:
- Redness
- Edema
- Itching (pruritis)

Excema

30

Psoriasis or Excema?
1. Found in extensor
2. Found in flexor

1. Psoriasis
2. Excema

31

Most common form of eczema?

Atopic: chronic, itching, thickening

32

Atopic Dermatitis vs Contact Dermatitis?

Atopic: most common
Contact: allergic

33

What skin condition does Type IV refer to?

Delayed hypersensitive contact dermatitis.

34

True or False: Poison Ivy is a form of Atopic Dermatitis?

False: Contact Dermatitis.
also - nickel, chromates, rubber adhesives and latex, plant oils (i.e. poison ivy).

35

A form of dermatitis characterized by redness and scaling where sebaceous glands are most active, typically face or scalp.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

36

Dry skin and itching is one of the main symptoms of what skin conditions?

Eczema. Changes in skin moisture levels cause a reduction in the barrier function, which in turn increases water loss, thus allowing the penetration of irritants and allergens which trigger eczema.

37

What skin condition? Initial treatment: Saline compresses until dry, followed by medium-strength topical corticosteroids and emollients.

Eczema: Chronic eczema treatment: High-potency topical corticosteroids and emollients

38

What skin condition? High-potency topical corticosteroids and emollients

Chronic eczema treatment:

39

Wat si first line treatment for chronic skin conditions?

Topical Corticosteroids are a common first line treatments for chronic skin conditions

40

This treatment soothes and relieves the itch, producing an oily layer over the skin surface which traps water beneath it.

Use of emollients (aquafor, eucerin)

41

Psoriasis: Chronic or Acute?

Chronic

42

Psoriasis: rated red plaques? true or false

true

43

Is psoriasis contact or genetic?

genetic - also arthritis correlation

44

Psoriasis triggers?

- stress
- sunlight
- cold weather
- pregnancy
- trauma

45

Treatment of psoriasis?

1) Topical therapy, most common is corticosteroids
2) Calcipotriene is a form of synthetic vitamin D3 that slows down the rate of skin cell growth, flattens psoriasis lesions and removes scale.
3) Coal Tar
4) Topical tazarotene is the first topical receptor-selective retinoid
5) Methotrexate (Rheumatrex)***Liver
6) Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) Kidney
7) Phototherapy

46

The chronic disorder is characterized by redness, pimples, flushing, burning and swelling - face and eyes

rosacea

47

Common chronic skin disorder mostly affects women ages 30-60, face and eyes of fair skinned people.

rosacea

48

telangiectasia?

Vascular rosacea causes persistent flushing and redness.

49

characterized by an enlarged, bulbous, and red nose ?

Rhinopehyma (rosacea)

50

TX for what condition?
1) Topical antibiotic (redness remains)
2) Laser or electro surgery
3) Surgery (for Rhinopehyma)

Rosacea treatment?

51

True or false: Impetigo / Boils / Cellulitis / Acne are all bacterial infections of the skin?

True

52

This skin disorder shows up as small, sometimes itchy red sores that have a yellowish-brown crust. The blister fluid is highly contagious with either causative agent--staphylococcus or streptococcus-

Impetigo (near face, nose, mouth, neck and extremities)

53

True or false: ok to needle near impetigo lesions?

False

54

Treatment for impetigo?

Topical antibiotics

55

Local bacterial infections, swollen, very tender nodule surrounding a hair follicle. It is usually pink or red. They are often under pressure and painful when touched.
They generally burst and heal within 2 weeks if they are not serious. However if on face or spine can be very serious.

Boil

56

A serious bacterial infection of the legs, especially near the shins and ankles. It appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender, and it may spread rapidly.

Cellulitis

57

Left untreated, this skin condition may rapidly turn into a life-threatening condition. The two most common types of bacteria that cause this are streptococcus and staphylococcus?

Cellulitis

58

Treatment for cellulitis?

Oral antibiotics

59

This skin condition starts in the sebaceous hair follicles and ends up being uneven shedding of dead skin cells that become sticky and clump together to form a plug.

Acne

60

Topical retinoids / derivatives of Vitamin A
/ Benzoyl peroxide / Salicylic acid / Topical antibiotics

Treatment for acne

61

Acne that is severe?

Cystic Acne: Oral antibiotics plus topical retinoids or hormone therapy / Isotretinoin

62

a variety of fungal infections of the skin by a group of fungi

Tinea

63

Clinical name for athletes foot?

Tinea pedis - can be treated with topical or oral antifungals

64

Another name for Tinea Corpis

Ringworm - Itchy

65

True or false: Tinea Corpis is not contagious.

False - Tinea corporis infections are contagious and can be passed by direct contact with affected individuals or by contact with contaminated items such as combs, clothing, shower, or pool surfaces and pets.

66

Tx of Tinea Corpis

Treated with topical antifungals.

67

A yeast and is a normal part of the skin flora.
shows up as red macular patches, grows best in warm, dark, moist environments.

Candida
Overgrowth is common in immunocompromised or immunosupressed patients

68

A type of infection caused by viruses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) family.

warts

69

Tx of warts

Often go away on their own, but can be removed by freezing (liquid nitrogen),burning (cantharidin, salycilic acid) or surgery.

70

Small burning vescicles on an erythematous base. Around mouth and genitals.

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 - mouth
Herpes Simplex Virus 2 - genitals

71

Herpes Zoster (varicella-zoster virus) causes what skin condition?

Shingles (chicken pox virus)

72

Burning, tingling, numbness, a rash of small fluid-filled vesicles appears on reddened skin, may be accompanied by headache.

Shingles

73

Lesion occur along a dermatomal distribution of a nerve root. A nerve infection with secondary skin manifestations.

Shingles

74

Another name for a Nevus ? These are caused by a proliferation of melanocytes.

mole. 30 % of malignant melanomas emerge from a preexisting nevi

75

VITILIGO

Vitiligo is a pigmentation disorder in which melanocytes in the skin are destroyed.
and white patches form.

76

Keloid

A scar that usually develops after healing of a skin injury. The tissue extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Certain individuals genetically predisposed.

77

True or False: Lipomas are cancerous?

False: Lipomas is a benign tumors (neoplasm) of fatty tissue. They are moveable beneath the skin surface. They are painless and may slowly enlarge.

78

This is the most common and least aggressive malignant skin cancer that nvolves proliferation of the basal layer of the epidermis. Usually, but not always sun related. This lesion presents most often as a pearly or waxy papule with associated telangiectasias or areas of blood vessel enlargement.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

79

TX of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

Excision

80

An epidermal malignant tumor usually located on sun exposed areas especially the lip, face, ears hands and arms.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

81

True or False: SCC does not have a specific clinical appearance.

True

82

True or False: SCC rarely metastasizes

True although it accounts for 1/3 of all skin cancers. TX excision

83

The rarest (2%) of skin cancer but it is the most lethal.

Melanoma - a malignant proliferation of melanocytes.

84

True or False: There is no evidence that melanomas run in families.

False

85

Asymmetry
Border Irregularity
Color variation
Large Diameter

Melanoma

86

TX of melanomas

- Excision
- Chemotherapy
- Lymph node dissection

87

Kaposi's Sarcoma is a symptoms of what other disease?

Advanced AIDS .
Bleeding may occur if lesions are traumatized

88

A very common benign epidermal growth - small papules or plaques with or without pigment. after the age of 30

Seborrheic Keratosis (SK)