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Flashcards in Dermatology intro stupid stuff Deck (49):
1

What are the functions/properties of the skin (13)

1. barrier
2. protection
3. motion an shape
4. adnexa production
5. temperature regulation
6. storage
7. indicator of health etc
8. immunoregulation
9. pigmentation
10. antimicrobial action
11. sensory perception
12. secretion and excretion
13. vit D production

2

What are the functions/properties of the skin (13)

1. barrier
2. protection
3. motion an shape
4. adnexa production
5. temperature regulation
6. storage
7. indicator of health etc
8. immunoregulation
9. pigmentation
10. antimicrobial action
11. sensory perception
12. secretion and excretion
13. vit D production

3

What is mechanobullous disease in belgian foals?

mutated protein in basement membrane leads to separation of epidermis and dermis

4

How does bullois pemphigoid occur?

basement membrane molecules are targeted by auto-antibodies

5

What is targeted in pemphigus foliaceous and vulgaris?

desmogleins

6

What forms 85% of the epidermal cells?

keratinocytes

7

What is the basal cell layer?

A single row of cells resting on the basement membrane

8

What is the basement membrane zone?

a critical junction between the cells of epidermis and underlying dermis

9

What are the layers of the skin?

basal layer
spinous layer
granular layer
stratum cornum (horny layer)

10

Why is the ggranular layer called the granular layer?

because the keratinocytes have abundant deeply basophilic keratohyalin granules.

11

Where does the formation of the cornified cell envelope start?

in the granular layer

12

Where does the formation of the cornified cell envelope start?

in the granular layer

13

what is the stratum corneum made up of?

terminally differentiated keratinocytes (corneocytes) that are anucleate, flat, keratin-rich, water depleted and surrounded by a complex lipid matrix.

14

What are the functions of the stratum corneum?

1. mechanical protection
2. barrier to water loss
3. prevents entrance of foreign molecules from the environment

15

What are the 4 distinct cellular events in cornification?

1. keratinization
2. keratohyalin synthesis
3. cornified cell envelope formation
4. lipid secretion

16

What are the 4 distinct cellular events in cornification?

1. keratinization
2. keratohyalin synthesis
3. cornified cell envelope formation
4. lipid secretion

17

What is cell turnover time from basal layer to granular layer?

21d (less in seborrheic cocker spaniels and irish setters)

18

What do melanocytes do?

Make melanin pigments, store in melanosomes and transfer the melanosomes to keratinocytes.

19

What are Langerhan cells? What do they do?

1. dendritic antigen-processing/presenting cells of epidermis. process and present antigens to lymphocytes

20

What do Merkel cells do?

Function as mechanoreceptors

21

What are histiocytomas?

benign neoplasms of langerhans cells

22

What is the dermis made up of?

CT elements, nerve, vessels, epidermally derived appendages, fibrolasts, macrophages, mast cells, transient immune cells

23

What is the role of the dermis?

1. pprovides pliability, elasticity and tensile strength of skin
2. protects body from mechanical injury
3. binds water
4. aids in thermal regulation
5. contains receptors for sensory stimuli
6. coordinates and supports epidermis
7. interacts in repairing and remodelling wounded skin

24

What makes up the ground substance in the dermis?

collgenous and elastic fibrous tissue and GAGs, glycoproteins, proteoglycans

25

What makes up the ground substance in the dermis?

collgenous and elastic fibrous tissue and GAGs, glycoproteins, proteoglycans

26

What are the roles of the subcutis?

1. energy reserve
2. protective padding
3. insulator

27

What are the phases of hair growth?

1. anagen
2. catagen
3. telogen

28

What factors influence hair growth?

1. breed
2. body region
3. photoperiod
4. various physiological/hormonal factors

29

What are the roles of sebum?

1. keeps skin soft and pliable
2. allows stratum corneum to retain moisture
3. gives hair sheen
4. some antimicrobial properties

30

What are the roles of sweat?

1. pheromone
2. antimicrobial properties
3. thermoregulation--esp horse)

31

What are the roles of the skin microcirculation?

1.

32

What are the roles of the skin microcirculation?

1. nutrition and oxygen delivery
2. temperature regulation
3. blood pressure regulation
4. wound repair
5. immunological events

33

what are the roles of the lymph channels of the skin?

1. regulate pressure of interstitial fluid
2. clear the tissues of cells, proteins, lipids, bacteria and degraded substances

34

What are two examples of disorders of abnormal egress of fluid from cutaneous vasculature?

1. urticaria
2. angioedema

35

What are two examples of ischemic dermatopathy?

1. dermatomyositis
2. vaccine-induced dermatopathy

36

How may pruritus manifest in cats?

excessive grooming

37

What is the factor with the greatest influence on cutaneous flora?

hydratio nof the stratum corneum--increased moisture supports microbial flora

38

What are ways the stratum corneum defends against damage?

1. tightly packed cells
2. epidermial lipids, sebum, sweat
3. inorganic salts and proteins that inhibits microbial growth
4. free fatty acids (antimicrobial)
5. IgA (sweat glands)

39

How do resident cutaneous microflora contribute to skin defense?

inhibit invading microbes

40

How do resident cutaneous microflora contribute to skin defense?

inhibit invading microbes

41

What are nomads of the skin?

able to colonize and reproduce for short periods of time and take advantage of changes in the skin's environment

42

What is the primary cutaneous pathogen in dogs and cats?

Staph pseudintermedius

is a resident in anal, nasal and mucocutaneous regions. can spread to skin by grooming. can be commonly found on skin of normal cats and dogs

43

What is mlassezia pachydermatis?

lipid-dependent yeast found on normal and abnormal skin and ear canals. has a sympiotic relationship with staphylococci

44

What yeast is a common cuase of dermatitis and otitis in dogs?

Malassezia

45

How does generalized demodicosis occur?

from profound overgrowth of demodex mites in the skin. can be very severe and potentially fatal

46

The ear canal is lined with what kinds of glands?

sebaceous and ceruminous (cerumen=earwax) glands

47

What are 4 signs of external ear disease?

1. head shaking
2. scatching
3. otic pain
4. otic discharge

48

What are clinical signs associated with middle ear disease?

1. greater otic pain than external ear dz
2. increased head-shaking
3. lethargy
4. inappetance
5. pain on opening of mouth
6. facial nerve paresis or parlysis, or horner's syndrome may be present

49

What are clinical signs associated with middle ear disease?

1. greater otic pain than external ear dz
2. increased head-shaking
3. lethargy
4. inappetance
5. pain on opening of mouth
6. facial nerve paresis or parlysis, or horner's syndrome may be present
7. peripheral vestibular symptoms