Who liscences medication in scotland?
SMC - Scottish medicines consortium
What are the causes of prescription errors?
•Lack of knowledge
–About the patient, the medication, allergies
•Mistake writing/generating the prescription
•No local or national guidelines
•Pharmacy/medicine info service
What is the definition of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics?
Pharmacokinetics - the effect of the body on the drug
Pharmacodynamics - the effect of the drug on the body
What are the factors that should be considered since pharmacodynamics are different in different patients?
–Age of patient
–Pregnancy risk (some drugs may be teratogenic)
Who is more likely to stick to their medication?
–Not paying for their prescriptions
What factors are associated with poor adherence?
•Slower acting agents
•Multiple applications per day
•Lack of patient education
•Cosmetic acceptability of treatments
What is the vehicle?
Pharmacologically inert, physically and chemically stable substance that carries the active drug
What factors affect absorption?
•Chemical properties of the drug
•Thickness and hydration of stratum corneum
What are types of vehicle?
Give examples of drugs administered topically
What is the function of topical steroids?
Also inhibit vascular permeability
What is the finger tip unit?
About 0.5 grams - should treat the area double the size of one hand
What are the side effects of topical steroids?
What skin condition can arise after stopping a course of topical steroids?
Treatment for which is stopping steroids and using emolium
What are the systemic treatments in dermatology?
Biologics (also immunosuppressive)
What are retinoids and what are their function?
Vitamin A anologues
They normalise keratinocyte function
Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects
What are the four different oral agents (retinoids) and their uses
Acne - Isotretinoin
Psoriasis - acitretin
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma - bexarotene
Hand eczema - alitretinoin
What are the risks associated with retinoids?
Cheilitis (dry lips)
Xerosis (dry skin)
Increase in transaminases
Increase in triglycerides
Rarely psychiatric, eye, bone side effects
What are the immunosuppressants used for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders?
What are the risks associated with immunosuppressants?
What are the blood tests needed in association with using immunosuppressants?
–FBC (esp in methotrexate and azathioprine)
–Renal function (esp ciclosporin)
–Liver function (esp methotrexate)
How are biologics made?
Genetically engineered proteins derived from human genes
Designed to inhibit specific portions of the immune system
What do the suffix'es cept and mab mean?
cept - genetically engineered fusion protein
mab - monoclonal antibodies
What are the infixes that immediately precede mab?
zu - humanised
ix - chimeric
u - fully human
li/l - immunomodulator
•E.g.adalimumab = immunomodulator fully human monoclonal antibodies
Give an example of a biologic that is used to treat plaque psoriasis in the UK
For chronic spontaneous utricaria - omalizumab
What are the risks associated with biologic agents?
•Risk of infection
–Avoid live vaccines
•Risk of malignancy
•TNF inhibitors – risk of demyelination
Biologics have been described as revolutionary for what condition?
Melanoma - ~20% 5 year survival in stage 4 disease