Flashcards in Describing, Analyzing and Testing Children's Speech Sound Abilities (Ch. 2) Deck (63):
How well speech conforms to expectations for age and sex and the potential to experience social, educational, or vocational problems because of speech.
Spectral-temporal characteristics of the speech signal that lead to the recognition of articulatory features of sounds, word and utterance boundaries, utterance type (e.g., statement, question, exclamation), speaker identity, etc.
A sound without regularity in the waveform, heard as "noise."
The process by which actions of the vocal tract structures create the distinctive acoustic energy patterns of the sequences of consonants and vowels in the speech signal.
A clinical procedure to determine which speech sounds are produced correctly and incorrectly and what type of error has been made when a sound is judged to be incorrect.
Anatomical structures (e.g., lips, tongue) utilized to generate speech sounds.
Adjustments of two or more articulators are made simultaneously for two or more speech sounds (reflect the properties of at least two phonemes.)
A sound that has several component frequencies
A subtle or incomplete contrast between phoneme targets produced by a child that indicates the child has not fully neutralized the phonemic contrast
A task in which rapid repetitive or alternating movements are used to examine the accuracy, range, speech and coordination of the articulators.
A vowel whose quality changes within the course of a single syllables.
A resonance of the vocal tract
A change in the frequency of a format associated with a change in vocal tract configuration such as the transition between a stop consonant and vowel
The lowest frequency or first harmonic of the voice; the number of vocal fold vibratory cycles per second
Whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency
Analyses that do not involve a comparison of the child's speech to the target (standard) pronunciation. Examples include inventories of consonants, vowels, or syllable/word shapes
How well a child's speech can be understood by listeners
A set of alphabetic characters that was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized way to represent the sounds (phonemes) of any spoken language
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
A speech-like task used to evaluate the integrity of the speech motor system. Examples include diadochokinetic rate and maximum phoneme duration
Maximum performance task
A task requiring prolonged production of a voiced continuant sound in one breath
Maximum phonation duration task
A vowel whose quality does not change throughout the syllable.
Consonants that involve a complete or narrow constriction of airflow in the oral cavity. Examples include plosives, fricatives, and affricates
When the peaks of a waveform that are too high in amplitude for the recording equipment are cut off, resulting in a recording that does not accurately represent the speech signal of the talker.
A sound where there is a regular pattern of component frequencies
Storage and retrieval of information about the speech sounds and their serial order in words.
Patterns of errors in children's speech that affect syllable structures or sound classes.
The sound system of a language
The permissible combinations and sequences of sounds in a given language
Vocalizations produced by infants prior to the onset of words
Examples of prespeech vocalizations (3)
Analyses that involve a comparison of the child's speech to the target (standard) pronunciation
Discrete units of speech, such as consonants and vowels
Sounds that have voice as the sole sound source.
Categories of Sonorants (4)
Vowels, liquids, nasals, glides
A two-part process describing speech production.
The two parts of the Source-filter theory
Speech sound source
Sound source shapers
A graphic representation of the frequency, amplitude and intensity of a selected portion f a a waveform over time
A plot that displays the intensity characteristics (Y axis) by the frequency characteristics (X axis) of a selected portion of a waveform
A branch of physics that studies the physical properties of speech in terms of the frequency, intensity and duration of sound
Characteristics of speech that extend beyond individual segmental (or speech sound) components.
Examples of suprasegmentals
Stress (lexical or phrasal)
The structure of consonants (C) and vowels (V) that make up syllables
The glottis and anatomical structures of the airway used in the production of speech
A measure of the time between the release of an articulatory closure and the onset of voicing for the following sound
Voice Onset Time (VOT)
A graphic representation of the speech signal showing amplitude over time
The structure of consonants, vowels and syllables that make up words
Word shape for the word "football"
Word shape for the word "bread"
What is the purpose of speech-like tasks?
They are used to measure the integrity of the speech motor system and can be used to identify impairments.
Examples of speech-like tasks (3)
Maximum phonation duration
Ways to ensure good speech sample recordings (3)
Use external microphone
Monitor recording level
Record in quiet location
What type of analysis does an articulation test provide?
Relational analysis (compares child's production to the target form)
What type of analysis do speech sound inventory and word shape inventory provide?
Independent analysis (does not compare child's production to presumed adult target)
a class of phonetically similar sounds found in the phonological system of a particular language; it is the smallest non-meaningful perceptible unit of oral language that changes word meaning.
A variation in pronunciation of a phoneme that does not change word meaning
Study of speech sounds
Study of speech sounds within a language
Typical f0 (3)
500 Hz at birth
200 Hz women
150 Hz young men
What type of speech sample is thought to be the most representative of a child's typical speech?
Spontaneous speech sample
Incorrect Production forms (4)
% of Consonants Correct
% of Consonants Correct-revised
% of Vowels Correct
% of Vowels Correct-revised
% of Phonemes Correct
% of Phonemes Correct-revised
How is the revised measure of PCC, etc. different?
The revised measure counts distortions as correct productions.