Describing, Analyzing and Testing Children's Speech Sound Abilities (Ch. 2) Flashcards Preview

SHS 585 Artic & Phonology > Describing, Analyzing and Testing Children's Speech Sound Abilities (Ch. 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Describing, Analyzing and Testing Children's Speech Sound Abilities (Ch. 2) Deck (63):
1

How well speech conforms to expectations for age and sex and the potential to experience social, educational, or vocational problems because of speech.

Acceptability

2

Spectral-temporal characteristics of the speech signal that lead to the recognition of articulatory features of sounds, word and utterance boundaries, utterance type (e.g., statement, question, exclamation), speaker identity, etc.

Acoustic Cues

3

A sound without regularity in the waveform, heard as "noise."

Aperiodic sound

4

The process by which actions of the vocal tract structures create the distinctive acoustic energy patterns of the sequences of consonants and vowels in the speech signal.

Articulation

5

A clinical procedure to determine which speech sounds are produced correctly and incorrectly and what type of error has been made when a sound is judged to be incorrect.

Articulation testing

6

Anatomical structures (e.g., lips, tongue) utilized to generate speech sounds.

Articulators

7

Adjustments of two or more articulators are made simultaneously for two or more speech sounds (reflect the properties of at least two phonemes.)

Co-articulation

8

A sound that has several component frequencies

Complex sound

9

A subtle or incomplete contrast between phoneme targets produced by a child that indicates the child has not fully neutralized the phonemic contrast

Covert Contrast

10

A task in which rapid repetitive or alternating movements are used to examine the accuracy, range, speech and coordination of the articulators.

Diadochokinetic tasks

11

A vowel whose quality changes within the course of a single syllables.

Dipthong

12

A resonance of the vocal tract

Formant

13

A change in the frequency of a format associated with a change in vocal tract configuration such as the transition between a stop consonant and vowel

Formant Transition

14

The lowest frequency or first harmonic of the voice; the number of vocal fold vibratory cycles per second

Fundamental Frequency

15

Whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency

Harmonics

16

Analyses that do not involve a comparison of the child's speech to the target (standard) pronunciation. Examples include inventories of consonants, vowels, or syllable/word shapes

Independent Analyses

17

How well a child's speech can be understood by listeners

Intelligibility

18

A set of alphabetic characters that was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized way to represent the sounds (phonemes) of any spoken language

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

19

A speech-like task used to evaluate the integrity of the speech motor system. Examples include diadochokinetic rate and maximum phoneme duration

Maximum performance task

20

A task requiring prolonged production of a voiced continuant sound in one breath

Maximum phonation duration task

21

A vowel whose quality does not change throughout the syllable.

Monothong

22

Consonants that involve a complete or narrow constriction of airflow in the oral cavity. Examples include plosives, fricatives, and affricates

Obstruents

23

When the peaks of a waveform that are too high in amplitude for the recording equipment are cut off, resulting in a recording that does not accurately represent the speech signal of the talker.

Peak Clipping

24

A sound where there is a regular pattern of component frequencies

Periodic Sound

25

Storage and retrieval of information about the speech sounds and their serial order in words.

Phonemic memory

26

Patterns of errors in children's speech that affect syllable structures or sound classes.

Phonological Processes

27

The sound system of a language

Phonology

28

The permissible combinations and sequences of sounds in a given language

Phonotactics

29

Vocalizations produced by infants prior to the onset of words

Prespeech Vocalizations

30

Examples of prespeech vocalizations (3)

squeals
grunts
quasivowels

31

Analyses that involve a comparison of the child's speech to the target (standard) pronunciation

Relational Analysis

32

Discrete units of speech, such as consonants and vowels

Segmental

33

Sounds that have voice as the sole sound source.

Sonorants

34

Categories of Sonorants (4)

Vowels, liquids, nasals, glides

35

A two-part process describing speech production.

Source-filter theory

36

The two parts of the Source-filter theory

Speech sound source
Sound source shapers

37

A graphic representation of the frequency, amplitude and intensity of a selected portion f a a waveform over time

Spectrogram

38

A plot that displays the intensity characteristics (Y axis) by the frequency characteristics (X axis) of a selected portion of a waveform

Spectrum (Spectra-pl.)

39

A branch of physics that studies the physical properties of speech in terms of the frequency, intensity and duration of sound

Speech acoustics

40

Characteristics of speech that extend beyond individual segmental (or speech sound) components.

Suprasegmentals

41

Examples of suprasegmentals

Stress (lexical or phrasal)
Intonation

42

The structure of consonants (C) and vowels (V) that make up syllables

Syllable Shapes

43

The glottis and anatomical structures of the airway used in the production of speech

Vocal Tract

44

A measure of the time between the release of an articulatory closure and the onset of voicing for the following sound

Voice Onset Time (VOT)

45

A graphic representation of the speech signal showing amplitude over time

Waveform

46

The structure of consonants, vowels and syllables that make up words

Word Shapes

47

Word shape for the word "football"

CVC.CVC

48

Word shape for the word "bread"

CCVC

49

What is the purpose of speech-like tasks?

They are used to measure the integrity of the speech motor system and can be used to identify impairments.

50

Examples of speech-like tasks (3)

Maximum phonation duration
Diadochokinetic task
Nonword Repetition

51

Ways to ensure good speech sample recordings (3)

Use external microphone
Monitor recording level
Record in quiet location

52

What type of analysis does an articulation test provide?

Relational analysis (compares child's production to the target form)

53

What type of analysis do speech sound inventory and word shape inventory provide?

Independent analysis (does not compare child's production to presumed adult target)

54

Phoneme

a class of phonetically similar sounds found in the phonological system of a particular language; it is the smallest non-meaningful perceptible unit of oral language that changes word meaning.

55

A variation in pronunciation of a phoneme that does not change word meaning

Allophone

56

Phonetics

Study of speech sounds

57

Phonemics

Study of speech sounds within a language

58

Typical f0 (3)

500 Hz at birth
200 Hz women
150 Hz young men

59

What type of speech sample is thought to be the most representative of a child's typical speech?

Spontaneous speech sample

60

Incorrect Production forms (4)

substitutions
additions
distortions
omissions

61

PCC
PCC-R
PVC
PVC-R
PPC
PPC-R

% of Consonants Correct
% of Consonants Correct-revised
% of Vowels Correct
% of Vowels Correct-revised
% of Phonemes Correct
% of Phonemes Correct-revised

62

How is the revised measure of PCC, etc. different?

The revised measure counts distortions as correct productions.

63

the GFTA- 2 is an example of what type of test?

Articulation Test
(Goldman-Fristoe 2)