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Flashcards in Design In Context Deck (37):

What are the uses of thermochromic Materials

Safety indicator in kitchen and bathroom products
Food storage containers
Forehead or fishtank thermometer
Novelty mugs and toys
Radiator and Pipe warning stickers


Advantages and disadvantages of thermochromics

Indicates safe temperatures
No need for thermometer saving cost
Clear visual cue
Easy of use

Limited range of colours
Less effective over time
Slow reaction time
More expensive then conventional parts


What is Ergonomics

Designing a product to comfortably fit a human beings body for use for long periods of time

2 main principles of ergonomics:
Fitting the activity to the person
Fitting the person to the activity

Can also be known as human engineering. The main objective is to improve someone’s life by increasing comfort and satisfaction


What is Anthropometrics

Branch of ergonomics that deals with the measurements of physical characteristics of human beings

Statistical data is used to produce produces to the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile of a population
Different charts are used for men, women, and children

Anthropometric data is produced by BSI


How can you make a design Ergonomic?

Using a simple design that is valid for everyone (a door way works for almost everyone)
Designing a range of products that covers all possibilities (clothing sizes)
Designing accessories that adapt to the original design (e.g. a car seat)
Designing a product that is adjustable


How does Mass Production effect society?

products for the rich could be made of ordinary people
Throw away culture leading to increased wastage
Innovative new products flooded the market (refrigerators, washing machines, radios)
Advertising and marketing exploded, and people began to explore using packaging and product styles to help sell products
It increased pollution and lead to global warming
It’s causing unsustainable use of resources


Advantages and disadvantages of Offshore manufacturing

Reduced manufacturing costs leading to cheaper products
Helps companies have a foothold in developing markets
Companies use the expertise of different countries to manufacture specific goods
More jobs available in shipping industries

Locals receive less pay and suffer poor working conditions
Shipping products produces more CO2


Advantages and Disadvantages of Built In Obsolescence

More CO2 produced as more products are made and need to be transported, meaning countries are less likely to reach there Kyoto Targets
Increased reliance on landfill, as products are thrown away or have been designed so you can’t repair them
Increased paper wastage from packaging
Drain on worlds finite resources, meaning we will run out sooner
Cost cutting during manufacturing leads to sweatshops, and low quality of life for workers. This can impact companies image (apple)

Greater Tax revenue and more jobs created to supply worlds demand
Greater availability of used “Obsolete products” and sold at lower prices
Companies under more pressure to innovate year on year, leading to stronger competition and better products
Increased consumerism creates profits for manufactures and recyclers as they have increased demand


Advantages and disadvantages of computers in the manufacturing and design of products

Greatly reduced lead time (printers can make high quality unique colour prints very quickly)
Can produce an exact number of products
Designs to quickly be stored and quickly transferred
Products can be made at a much lower cost
Improves communication
Improves accuracy

Computer systems are expensive
Traditional jobs are lost


Give 3 examples of product miniaturisation and there impact

Advanced Integrated Circuits (IC): or microprocessors allow more circuitry to be put in a smaller product increasing functionality and power

Advanced Battery Technology: including lithium ion allow for lightweight products and increased battery capacity

Advanced Liquid Crystal Displays: enabling colour screens that are smaller and lighter with improved efficiency


Properties and Uses of shape memory alloys

Once deformed it can return to its original shape:
1. Glasses
2. Braces


Properties and Uses of Smart Glass

Used to change how dim a window is by applying a voltage:
1. Welding Visors
2. Office Windows
3. Privacy Windows in Hotels or Restaurants


Philosophy of Arts and Crafts

Grew out of concerns over industrialisation on the design of everyday mass-produced products

The design of newly developed mass-produced products was often overlooked causing poor quality, over decorated, and out of proportion products

The people wanted simple inexpensive products, which were hard to come by, and thus there was a space in the market


Style of Arts and Crafts

Simplicity: Interiors where removed of clutter and given suitable proportional furniture, giving a clean-living environment. Furniture was humble with minimal ornate design. Roughness was typical

Splendour: Using different materials and techniques in artistic ways

Nature: was a source of inspiration. Natural and stylised flower patterns were used. Symbolism like hearts and ships were also widely used

Colour and Texture: Colours were used to give unity and focus. Links were made between colour and nature. Architects and designers prefer natural materials that were available nearby


Describe William Morrises design style and impact

William Morris put Ruskin’s theories into practice: placing focus on craftsmanship, simplicity, patterns inspired by nature, and the beauty of natural materials

Specialised in producing stained glass, carvings, furniture, wallpaper, carpets and tapestries

created a number of workers guilds breaking down the barriers of different fields of design, pioneering a new approach of design and decorative arts

His socialist political views influenced his design style of simplicity, and natural products rather than mass produced industrial products


Philosphy of Art Nouveau

Developed by a new generation of artists and designers who sought to fashion an art form for the modern times

It was developed when modern urban life was in its infancy so the design reflects old traditional living alongside new modern ways of living

It bridges arts and crafts and modernism, and designers used mass production to embrace the aesthetics of modern materials e.g. the use of glass and wrought iron instead of stone and wood

Strived for perfection , giving the highest standards of craftsmanship and design to simple everyday products


Style of Art Nouveau

Femininity: Frequent use of the female figure with long flowing hair

Culture: Japanese artefacts gave a lot of inspiration due to their asymmetrical woodcuts and grid structures. Celtic, Greek, and Arabian inspired ribbon patterns

Nature: Nature was a source of inspiration. Natural and stylised flower patterns were used. Elongated curvy whiplash lines were used, as were peacock feathers


Describe Charles Mackintosh design style and impact

Contrast between strong right angles parallel lines and symmetry
Influenced by nature - floral inspired motifs
elongated lines, whiplash
Influence of other cultures and by celtic, ancient Greek, Arabian
old traditional furniture/shapes sit alongside new ideas (1)
form over function
embraced the benefits of mass production
influence of the female form
New materials


What is the philosophy of Bauhaus Modernism, and what was the Bauhaus school?

Rejected the old natural aesthetic for a man made machined one

Emphasised materials used instead of decorative motifs

Bauhaus born when Germanys economy was in a state of collapse after WWI

It was a design school containing a range of workshops

Bauhaus actively encouraged multi-disciplinary designers, and was convinced all art was in hand craft

Bauhaus produced a range of products for mass production, from lamps to whole houses

It was disbanded in 1933 when Hitler rose to power


What was the style of Bauhaus Modernism

Form follows function: Functional over decorative. Simple designs that worked well, as well as looked good. Geometrically pure with clean lines and no clutter

Products for a machine age: Used modern materials like steel and mechanised mass production processes. Products looked like they were made by machines

Everyday objects for everyday people: Goods were functional, cheap, and easy to mass produce so that ordinary people could afford them


Describe Marcel Breuer's design style and impact

Studied at Bauhaus, and wanted to combine art and technology

Designed the Wassily Chair which was revolutionary due to its use of materials (leather and bent steel) and its methods of manufacturing, which had only recently been made possible to produce seamless steel tubing


What is art decos philosophy?

Both arts and crafts and machine production and contained both high art and mass production products
Embraced the human need for pleasure and escape, introduced opulence in response to the austerity during the First World War
Geometric forms, patterns, bright colours, and sharpe edges
Expensive materials (enamel, ivory, bronze, polished stone, coloured glass, chrome
Innovations reduced the coast of this design


What is art decos style?

Geometric Forms: Trapezoidal, zigzagged, fan motifs, sunburst motifs

Primitive Arts: Sculptural forms from African, Egyptian, and Aztec art and architecture

Machine Age: Man made materials (aluminium, glass, steel), symmetry, repetition


Describe Eileen Gray's design style and impact

Combined Lacquered woods geometric shapes and Japanese motifs

Designed furniture and homes

Metal and glass furniture inspired by marcel Bruer


What is streamlining design philosophy?

Influenced by aerodynamics and designed for new high-speed transport
New materials and mass production allowed for more refined products
For an object to be aerodynamic it needs to be smooth at the front and gradually curve back – the tear drop design
Tear drop adopted within art deco, even to house hold appliances (Radios, fridge’s etc.)
In the 50s came the space age and atomic age


What is streamlining style

Tear Drop: Inspired by airlines and marine life, adopted as perfect aerodynamicism, as the guide for the design of modern products

Futurism:Science fiction provided optimism for the future, with sleek rocket shapes and atomic designs


Describe Raymond Lowey's design style and impact

Much of Loewy’s work merged Art Deco style with producing streamlined forms
The shapes looked modern using used the tear drop
Worked on company identities for multinational companies
Designed a range of products from cars to copying machines
Many of his designs are still in use today
Used streamlining to improved vehicles aerodynamics allowing for improved efficiency and aesthetics of items


Describe Post Modernisms Philosophy

Shunned functionalism
Began with architecture as a reaction against the blandness of modernist architecture, and wanted to inject individualism and personality into the design
The Memphis group in the 80s created a series of highly influential products, that challenged the idea that products needed to follow conventional shapes colours and patterns, and was inspired by previous design styles
It was considered to be a fad, and in 1988 the group was disbanded


Describe Post Modernisms Style

Humour and Personality: Products were bright and colourful, including unnecessary decoration

Retro Inspiration: Designs take inspiration from retro design, taking old ideas and combining them with new materials and technology

Deconstruction: Structure of buildings is distorted so it becomes. Non rectangular, giving the impression of controlled chaos


Describe Phillipe Stark's design style and impact

Designed mass produced products, as well as interior designs and houses
Rose to fame in 1982 when he designed interiors for the French president
designed the packaging for inexpensive products like a Microsoft mouse
His products are streamlined, stylised and organic
He values new technologies possess a taste for innovation, and sustainability


Theory of form follows function, and why its adopted

Over time the design of products has been simplified and there materials were changed
Mass production meant products needed to be standardised and easy to produced, to make sure they could be sold for a profit
New design styles like modernism produced product that didn’t have any unnecessary details
Designers must still make sure the products are functional, otherwise they won’t sell
A product should be fit for purpose without any unnecessary decoration


Theory of form over function, and why its adopted

More recently though design became a way of self-expression
Products quality improved, and the only reason for choosing one product over another is aesthetic qualities
One of the roles of a designer is to provide a product with the right style and image
As many products are mass produced, designers must find ways to make them personals and individual
Aesthetics of a product contribute to an overall aesthetically pleasing environment


How can you extend a products functional life

Make them easy to open and replace faulty parts
For products that become technologically obsolete could be upgraded by manufactures then resold in a secondary market
Simpler designs


How can AVGs be guided

Floor mounted reflective line guided.
Floor embedded radio wire / magnetic strip
Laser guided
Gyroscopic guided
GPS guided


Explain the benefits of smart materials

Can reduce the size of a product / reduce materials costs

Can reduce the complexity of a product enabling a reduction in manufacturing costs

Can give a product improved / additional features

Extend the life of a product as it has fewer components to fail (replace batteries and power sources)


How can anthropometrics be used to make a product cover a large demographic

Designers use the average sizes for their target market
Anthropometric data is used to cover 90% of the
population/between the 5th and 95th percentile
Anthropometric data is specific to the region of the
world where the product is to be used
Both male and female data is used
Data is available for children of all ages


Whats the advantage of smart glass

Provides shade from harmful UV
Glass can tint the window
Provides privacy Can be used for energy saving windows to prevent heat passing reducing heating/a-c
No need to blinds/curtains
Allows control of natural light levels