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Flashcards in Dev Psychology Deck (94):
1

Apgar scale

Standard measurement system that looks for variety of indications of good health in newborns

2

In vitro fertilization

Procedure in which women’s ova are removed from her ovaries and a man’s sperm are to fertilize ova in laboratory

3

Ultrasound Sonographie

Process in which high-frequency wound waves scan mother’s womb to produce image of size, and shape of infant

4

Fetus

Developing child, from 8 weeks after conception until birth

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Lifespan development

Field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout entire life span

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Cesarean delivery

Baby surgically removed from uterus

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Stillbirth

Delivery of a death child

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Low birth-weight infants

Less than 2,500 grams at birth

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🔹Affordances

Options that a given situation or stimulus provides

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🔹Continuous change

Gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels

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🔹Discontinuous change

Occurs in distinct steps or stages, each Tage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at early stages

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Cohort

Group of people born at around the same time in same place

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Episiotomy

Incision made to increase size of opening of vagina to allow baby to pass

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Classical conditioning

Type of learning in which organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally doesn’t bring about the type of response

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Infertility

Inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant

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Self-actualization

State of self-fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in own unique way

17

SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)

Disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep ( 1 in 1000 infants per year)

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Obesity

Weight greater than 20% above average for given height

19

Brazelton behavioral assessment scale

Determines infants‘ normative standing, neurological and behavioral responses to environment, immediately after birth, 30 min

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Transverse position

Baby lies crosswise in uterus

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Synapse

Gap at connection between neurons, through which neurons chemically communicate

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Reflex

Unlearned, organized, involuntary response that occur automatically in presence of certain stimuli

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Major perspectives of lifespan development

- psychodynamic
- behavioral
- cognitive
- humanistic
- contextual
- evolutionary

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Psychodynamic perspective

- behavior is motivated by inner, unconscious forces
- Freud, Erik Erikson
- Ex.: obesity because of fixation in oral stage

25

Behavioral perspective

- understood trough studying observable behavior and environmental stimuli
- Watson, Skinner, Bandura
- Ex.: obesity because too little awards for nutrition and good food

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Cognitive perspective

- how changes or growth in ways people know, understand, and think about world affect behavior
- Piaget
- Ex.: obesity because of knowledge gap

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Humanic perspective

- behavior is chosen through free will and motivated by natural capacity
- Rogers, Maslow
- Ex.: obesity because of own choice

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Contextual perspective

- development viewed in terms of interrelationship of a person’s physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds
- Bronfenbrenner, Vygotsky
- obesity because of mixture of all factors

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Evolutionary perspective

- behavior is result of genetic inheritance
- influenced by Darwin, Lorenz
- obesity because of genetic tendency

30

Ethical guidelines for research

- protect participant from physical and psychological harm
- obtain informed consent from participants before involvement
- use of deception must be justified and cause no harm
- privacy must be maintained

31

Case studies

Involve extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals

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Applied research

Meant to provide particular solutions to immediate problems

33

Behavior modification

Formal technique for promoting frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing incidence of unwanted ones

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Behavioral perspective

Approach suggesting that key to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in environment

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Cognitive perspective

Approach that focuses on process that allows people to know, understand, and think about world

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Humanistic perspective

Theory contending that people have natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior

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Evolutionary perspective

Theory that seeks to identify behavior that is result of our genetic inheritance from ancestors

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Experimental research

Designed to discover causal relationships between various factors

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Field study

Research investigation carried out in naturally occurring setting

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Longitudinal research

Behavior of one or more participants in study is measured as they age

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Naturalistic observation

Type of correlational study in which some naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in situation

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Non-normative life events

Specific, atypical events that occur in person’s life at time when such events don’t happen to most people

43

Scientific method

Process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and collection of data

44

Social-cognitive learning theory

Learning by observing behavior of another person, called a model

45

Socialcultural theory

Approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as result of social interactions between members of culture

46

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Disorder caused by pregnant mother consuming quantities of alcohol during pregnancy, potentially resulting in mental retardation and delayed growth

47

Fetal alcohol effects

Condition in which children display some, though not all, of problems of fetal alcohol syndrome due to mother’s consumption of alcohol

48

Fetal stage

Begins 8 weeks after conception until birth

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Teratogen

Environmental agent that produces birth defect

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Anoxia

Restriction of oxygen to baby, lasting few minutes during birth process, can produce brain damage

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Infant mortality

Death within 1st year

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Postmature infants

Still unborn 2 weeks after mother’s due date

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Preterm/Premature infants

Born prior to 38 weeks after conception

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Very-low-birthweight infants

Weigh less than 1,250 Gramms, have been in womb less than 30 weeks

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Plasticity

Degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience

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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

Period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming

57

Synaptic pruning

Elimination of neurons as result of nonuse or lack of stimulation

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Bayley scale of infant development

Measure that evaluates an infant‘s development from 2-42 months on two areas: mental and motor abilities

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Infant-direct speech

Type of speech directed towards infants; short, simple sentences

60

Learning theory approach to language

Theory that language acquisition follows basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning

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Memory

Information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved

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Object permanence

Realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen

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Ambivalent attachment pattern

Style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to mother

64

Attachment

Positive emotional bond that develops between child and particular, special individual

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Avoidant attachment pattern

Style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to mother

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Disorganized-disorientated attachment pattern

Children’s show inconsistent, often contradictory behavior, approaching to mother when she returns but not looking at her

67

Empathy

Emotional response that corresponds to feelings of another Parton

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Mutual regulation model

Model in which infants and parents learn to communicate emotional states to one another and to respond appropriately

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Personality

The sum total of enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another

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Reciprocal socialization

Process kn which infants‘ behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers, which in turn bring about further responses from infants

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Secure attachment pattern

Children use mother as kind of home base and are at ease when she is present

72

Social smile

Smile kn response to other individuals

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Social referencing

Intentional search for information about others‘ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events

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History-graded influences

Biological and environmental influences associated with particular history moment

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Age-graded influences

Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in particular age group, regardless of when/where raised

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Sociocultural-graded influences

Social and cultural factors present at particular time for particular individual, depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership

77

Stranger anxiety

Caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person

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Temperament

Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual

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Theory of mind

Knowledge and beliefs about how mind works and how it affects behavior

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Privat speech

Speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves

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Social speech

Directed toward another person and meant to be understood by them

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Scaffolding

Support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth

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Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

According to Vygotsky, level at which child cal almost perform a task independently

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Aggression

Intentional injury or harm to another person

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Androgynous

State in which gender roles encompass characteristics though typical of both sexes

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Cycle of violence hypothesis

Theory that abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect own children

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Emotional self-regulation

Capacity to adjust emotions to a desired state of intensity

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Individualistic orientation

Philosophie that emphasizes personal identity and uniqueness of individual

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Moral development

Changes in people‘s sense of justice and of what is right or wrong, behavior related to moral issues

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Permissive parents

Provide lax and inconsistent feedback, hippies

91

Prosocial behavior

Helping behavior that benefits others

92

Race dissonance

Phenomenon in which monitors children indicate preferences for majority people

93

Resilience

Ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage

94

Self-concept

Person‘s identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual