Develomental Progressions, Advance Motor Skills milestones (from text book and slides) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Develomental Progressions, Advance Motor Skills milestones (from text book and slides) Deck (89):
1

ATNR continues to influence head position in all postures, including prone, until the influence has completely subsided by approximately ...

4 months of age

2

__________ is the earliest antigravity control to develop

Head control in prone

3

In the infant, the head makes up approximately ________ of the body in length, causing the head to be proportionately large and heavy

one-quarter

4

With the help of the abdominal muscles to stabilize the pelvis in a relative posterior tilt, the infant begins actively lifting the head at approximately ______

2 months of age

By 4 months, the baby is able to lift the head to 90 degrees.

5

By 4 months, the baby is able to lift the head to ____

90 degrees 

6

By 3 months, the baby is able to lift the head to ____

45 degrees

7

If a child exhibits TV shoulders while prone-on-elbows, the strength of the ___________ muscles as well as the strength of the _________ and __________ muscles should be tested.

  1. serratus anterior
  2. Cervical flexors and extensors.

8

Without the ability to elongate this region, the child will not be able to get the  elbows into position underneath the shoulders for the prone-on-elbows posture

scapulo-humeral enlogation

(enlogation of the axillary region)

9

The prone-on-elbows posture is the first call for the upper extremities to be ____ _____ 

weight bearing. This ability to weight-bear through the forearms, elbows, and shoulders foreshadows the weight bearing that will follow in the quad-ruped position.

10

The elbows, in the prone-on-extended-arms posture, illustrate the (developmental) principle of weight bearing on ______________

extended limbs after first weight bearing on flexed limbs

11

Crawling is a locomotive form that infants may use from _______ to __________ of age. Crawling is defined as moving “slowly by dragging the body along the ground."

3 months to 8 or 9 months

12

the child may choose plantigrade creeping over creeping in quadruped if he has bare knees and is on a concrete or other rough surface. This illustrates the _______ nature of development. Many factors, in addition to maturation, influence the development of motor skills.

dynamic

A image thumb
13

Rolling from prone to supine and supine to prone, another means of locomotion, develops in the infant by ______

5 to 6 months of age

(Non-segmental or log rolling: 3 months)

14

Goals of Motor Development:

  • Control against gravity
  • Inter and intra-segmental isolated movements
  • COM over BOS

15

What are the "French Angles"?

Used to assess tone/movement in the nursery

(Developed by a Fnench Neurologist)

16

Scarf Sign

  • Passively move the arm across the chest in supine with head in midline
  • Term: resistance before midline
  • Pre-term: no resistance

17

Popliteal angle:

  • Term: 60 to 90 deg
  • Pre-term: 135-180 deg

18

Ankle DF:

  • Passive DF in supine, angle bet lower leg and foot
  • term: less than 30 deg
  • pre-term: bet 60 and 90 deg

19

Slip through:

  • vertical suspension holdin under axillae 
  • term: does not slip through
  • pre-term: slips through

20

Pull to sit (French angle):

  • Term: no head lag
  • pre-term: complete head lag

21

Rooting reflex:

  • stroke corner of mouth
  • term: head turns towards stimulus
  • pre-term: absent

22

Sucking reflex:

  • Nipple or finger in child's mouth
  • term: strong and rhythmic sucking
  • pre-term: weak or absent 

23

Grasp reflex:

  • term: sustained flexion and traction
  • pre-term absent

24

ATNR reflex:

  • supine, passively turn head to one side
  • term: upper and lower extremities extend on face side
  • pre-term: absent

25

Prone progression:

  1. Physiological flexion
  2. hip extension, begin to lift head
  3. 3 mo: head to 45 deg
  4. 4 mo: head to 90, with chin tuck, must activate cervical flexors
  5. weigh shifting
  6. reaching
  7. Prone on extended arms (4-6 mo)
  8. beginning of flexion at the hips into quadruped

26

Pivot prone:

  • Seen at 4-6 mo
  • allows enlogation of ant trunk

27

Prone progression locomotion:

  1. Scooting (1-2 mo), cannot be left alone.
  2. Crawling; backwards first
  3. Pivoting in prone (4-6 mo)
  4. Rolling, prone to supine, then supine to prone
  5. Creeping (9-11 mo)
  6. Plantigrade creeping (10-12)

28

Supine progression:

  1. Physiological flexion, will gradually decrease
  2. Head to side until midline controll develops (ATNR until 4-5mo)
  3. Pull to sit: head lag?
  4. Reaching for LE, to knees, to feet (around 5 mo): for exploration of the body; cross body reaching, enlongation of the posterior LE musculature in preparation for standing.

29

Sitting progression:

  1. Supported sitting: C-curve, initially see Bobbing of the head, sacral sitting.
  2. Propped sitting: tripod position, not much mobility.
  3. Ring sitting: (6 mo) wide BOS limit transitions; hands free to play.
  4. Long sitting: narrower BOS, enhances transitions.
  5. Side sitting: requires greatest amount of trunk control; seen 1st with propping; then without UE use; requires dissociation of LE's.

30

Sitting Propping reactions:

  1. Forward (tripod) position: 6 mo
  2. Side to side: 7-8 mo
  3. Posterior: 9-10 mo

31

Once ____________ is achieved in the shoulder girdle, the child can reach into space to grasp a toy

Q image thumb

stability

32

When the neonate is pulled to sitting, the examiner gently pulling the infant's upper extremities at the wrists, the head is held in plane with the body and exhibits no _________, mimicking active head control

head lag

(Due to physiologic flexion. As the physiologic flexion gradually disappears over the first month, when pulled to sitting, head lag is present.

33

What is the pull to sit progression:

  1. No head lag
  2. Mild head lag
  3. Head in midline
  4. Active flexion against gravity

34

The ATNR is seen in normal infants during the first 

4 months of life

35

Once children exhibit dissociation of the two lower extremi-ties and are stable in halfring sitting, some children actually develop a locomotive form in this posture called ________. 

Hitching, is when a child, while sitting on the floor, uses ei-ther foot to dig into the surface in order to scoot forward on his buttocks.

36

Hitching is often see in children with...

  •  abnormal development and prevents transition to creeping
  • Children with hemiplegia
  • Children with LOW tone with wide base of support in ring sitting

37

Standing progression:

  1. Automatic standing and stepping. (1 mo)
  2. Abasia: baby still takes weight with support (2mo)
  3. Astasia: leg give away (2-3)
  4. Volitional standing (5mo): hip abd ER flx, knee flx, pronation of the feet
  5. Pulls to stand: 7-9 mo
  6. Cruising: 10 mo, allows development of weight sifting
  7. Independent standing: 11 mo, up to 15 mo is OK. 18 or greater = delay
  8. squating: 12 mo; important for play, stretches PF

38

The lack of weight bearing through the lower extremities, which occurs typically during the third and fourth months, is the stage of ______, literally meaning without standing.

astasia

39

The child begins pulling himself to standing in his crib at about this time:

7 to 8 months

40

__________ of age, the child pulls himself to standing at furniture such as a sofa or low table. Now he gets to standing by going through the knee-standing (tall-kneeling) and half-kneeling postures and is adept at getting down with control.

By 10 months

41

Soon he begins stepping sideways while holding onto the furniture. This supported walking at ___ months of age is called cruising. 

10

42

During the cruising phase of development, in addition to practicing his walking, the child's cruising movements contribute to the development and strengthening of __________________ as he sidesteps 

hip abduction/adduction and ever-sion/inversion of the ankles

43

During the development of standing, cruising, and walk-ing, the child develops the ability to ________ to play as well as to pick up an object from the floor.

squat

44

Locomotion ccurs at about...

 

1 year of age, up to 15 months
OK,  18 months or greater = delay

45

Of the child is walking independently by 18 mo is considered 

delay

46

Hat age does the child achieves an adult gait pattern?

7 y/o

47

Over the years, a child's cadence during gait will increase or decrease?

decrease

48

First independent forward walking generally occurs between ________ months of age, with the typical child walking at _______ of age, plus or minus a month

  1. 10 and 15
  2. 12 months

49

Stair climbing progression:

  1. First with step to pattern
  2. two hand on rail facing side
  3. 1 hand onrail reciprocally

 

50

The ability to ascend and descend stairs is affected by a number of factors, most particularly:

opportunity

51

Climbing stairs usually occurs with UE support at:

 

15-16 months

52

Stands on low balance beam

2 yr

53

Balance on one foot 3-5 sec

5 yr

54

Jumps from bottom step

2 yr

55

Jumps of the floor with 2 feet

28 mo (2.3 yr)

56

Hops 3 times

3 yr

57

Hops 50 feet

5 yr

58

Gallops

4 yr

59

Skips

6 yr

60

Catches a ball using hands only

5 yr

important for social play

61

Attempts to kick a ball

18 mo

62

True run

2-3 yr

63

Catches ball using hands and body

3 yr

64

Reaches out to grasp objects

4-5 mo

65

Bangs object together 

5 mo

66

Transfers objects from one hand to another

6 mo

67

Holds crayon

11 mo

68

Build tower with 8 cubes

30 mo (2.5 yr)

69

Stands on low balance beam:

2 yr

70

Walks straight line

3 yr

71

Walks circular line

4 yr 

72

Balances on one foot for 3–5 sec

5 yr

73

Walks backward

18 mo 

74

Jumps from bottom step 

2 yr 

75

Jumps off floor with both feet 

28 mo

76

Hops 3 times 

3 yr

77

Hops 8–10 times on same foot 

5 yr 

78

Hops distance of 50 feet 

5 yr 

79

Gallops 

4 yr 

80

Skips 

6 yr 

81

Catches ball using body and hands 

3 yr 

82

Catches ball using hands only 

5 yr 

83

Attempts to kick ball 

18 mo 

84

Hurls ball 3 feet

 18 mo 

85

Kicks ball 

2–3 yr 

86

Throws ball 

2–3 yr 

87

Fast walk 

18 mo 

88

True run with nonsupport phase 

2–3 yr

89

Stair climbing progression:

  1. Step to pattern,
  2. Two hand on rail facing side,
  3. 1 hand onrail reciprocally