Developing cold war 1948-61 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developing cold war 1948-61 Deck (27):
1

How was Germany divided at the end of WW2?

Into four zones. A French one, a British one, an American one and a Russian one.

2

When was bizonia and trizonia (joining of the three capitalist zones) created with the western zones of Germany?

1947.

3

When did the western zones introduce a new currency and what was the importance of this? How did Stalin respond, in June 1948?

June 1947 – it made the West noticeably richer than the East.
He blocked off West Berlin in an attempt to force the West out of the city.

4

How did the USA respond to the Berlin blockade?

Airlifted supplies into the city on a constant flight rotation for many months.

5

What was formed on the 23rd May, three days after the end of the Blockade?

NATO.

6

What was the importance of the Blockade for relations between the USSR and the USA?

-It showed how bad relations had got between the USA and the USSR.
-It increased tension because it made the USSR look like the bad guys and the USA look like the good guys for trying to break the Blockade.

7

Which countries joined NATO (1949)?

Lots, including – USA, France, GB, Iceland, Canada... (West Germany didn’t join until 1955).

8

What countries joined the Warsaw Pact (1955)

Poland, USSR, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, etc.

9

What was the purpose of NATO and the Warsaw Pact?

Defence against the other.

10

What had started the arms race back in 1945?

The USA’s development and use of an atomic bomb.

11

How much more powerful was the hydrogen bomb the USA developed in 1952?

1000.

12

What did the USSR develop in 1953?

H-bomb.

13

What is an ICBM?

Inter-continental ballistic missile.

14

When was the first American ICBM developed?

1957.

15

What failed to be agreed at a summit meeting in July 1955?

Disarmament - the reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons.

16

What was the secret speech?

A speech by Khrushchev which announced peaceful coexistence and destalinisation.

17

Why did peaceful coexistence not work out?

It was a contradiction. It was based on there being cooperation but at the same time there was no question that Khrushchev would do anything that would make the USSR look bad or weak in comparison to the the Americans.

18

Why were the people of Hungary unhappy in 1956?

-The brutal secret police.
-Poor living conditions.
-Their economy was being exploited by the USSR - food and raw materials were being taken.

19

Who replaced Rakosi as leader of the country?

Nagy.

20

What did supporters of Nagy do when they saw Soviet tanks and soldiers?

Attacked them – often with homemade bombs.

21

Why did the USA not want to get involved with the Nagy beef (three reasons)?

-Fear of Nuclear war.
-Hungary was in the Soviet ‘sphere’ of influence.
-The Americans were more occupied with a crisis in Egypt over ownership of the Suez canal.

22

What was the standard of living like in East Germany?

Poor.

23

Why did skilled workers particularly want to leave East Germany?

For better pay and greater freedoms.

24

What was Khrushchev’s ultimatum over the city of Berlin, issued on the 27th November 1958?

That the allies should leave the city to make it a neutral free city.

25

Due to the fact that neither the east or the west wanted a war, what took place to try to sort out the issue of Berlin?

The Paris and Vienna Summits.

26

What major event led to a breakdown in relations during talks in Paris in May 1960?

An American spy plane was shot down in the USSR.

27

How did US President Kennedy appear tough and determined over Berlin at talks with Khrushchev in Vienna in 1961?

He refused to withdraw western forces from Berlin and increased defence spending.