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Flashcards in Development Of Gender Identity Deck (28):

Weinrub et al (1984) : from 31 months children can do what?

Successfully sort photographs of the self into piles of male or female photographs.
Describe themselves with the correct gender.
The beginning of gender labelling.


Bandura (1977) social learning theory

Observation, imitation and reinforcement.
Vicarious conditioning and observational learning.
But Child is portrayed as passive, identity is not constructed.


Fagotten Feminism

Adult modelling (Fagot et al, 1992)
Children of more traditional mothers pick up gender labels faster


Adam and Beth

Will, Self & Datan (1976)
Adam or Beth
Train, Doll or Fish

Beth got doll more often, received more smiles too
Adults push babies into a gender direction


Oh appropriate toy

Caldera, Hudson & O'Brien (1989) Sex-Appropriate Toys

18-23m child receives more positive responses for picking up sex-appropriate toys.
Parental influence on gender identity.


Fagot activites

Fagot (1977) Peers
Interviews and observations of 3-4yrs.
Criticise peers engaged in gender inappropriate activities.
Reproduce and reinforce rigid gender stereotypes.


Down with the kids

Langlois & Downs (1980)
Asked peers & adults on toy choice

Boy/girl, car/doll
Mothers didn't intervene, Fathers disapprove
Peer reactions the strongest
Particularly negative for boy with girls toy


Houston, we have a TV problem

Houston, Wright, Marquis & Green (1999)

No gender difference in average TV time
Difference in content: boys action orientated, girls diverse and people orientated


Crows at the museum

Crowley et al (2010)
Parents explain scientific exhibits more to their sons than to their daughters.


McHellish siblings

McHale et al (2001)

Older siblings influence gender typing more than parents


Cognitive Theory
Kohlberg (66)
3 stages to Gender Development

2-3 gender labelling (m or f)
4-5 sender stability (m remain m)
6-7 gender constancy (m stays despite appearance changes)


Cognitive Theory
If Janie wants to, can she be a boy?
Will Janie be a boy if she cuts her hair?
Can Johnny play with dolls?

Emmerich et al (77)
1. Refusals, failure to justify
2. Stimulus description, transactional
3. Operational constancy


Gender Similarity Hypothesis

Hyde (05)
46 metaanaylses
There are more similarities between M and F brains than differences on psychological characteristics.
Gender accounts for 1% of differences
85% of distributions overlap
Large effect size in motor abilities, sexuality and aggression


Criticisms of Cognitive Development Theory

1. Underplays social roles
2. Cognitive advances aren't universal (Frey & Ruble, 92)
3. How much does gender labelling contribute to development?
4. No mention of biology


Criticisms of Social Learning Theory

1. Portrays child as passive in acquiring identity
2. Does not sketch the construction of identity - has many layers and contexts
3. Underplays biological role


Gender Schema Theory

Reconciles social and cognitive models.
Use schemas to make inferences on new people.
Information processing and realisation through interaction and cognitive processes


Martin & Halverson (87)

Martin & Halverson (87)
Gender labelling forms Schema
In/out group behaviour
Need to acknowledge own sex first


Martin, Eisenbud & Rose (95)

If a girl likes a toy, assumes that other girls like it also
Incorporate self into social groups.


Criticisms of Gender Schema Theory
Campbell et al (00)

N60, 3-18m
Gaze duration in simultaneous visual preference paradigm
18m = no self recognition
Preference for M activities increase with age
Toy preference occurs before self recognition / same infant preference - so are toys intrinsically interesting?


Biological Approach to Gender Identity

Money & Ehart (72) MZ twins, penis, raised as F, behaviour
Diamond (82) identity issues in adolescence, lived life as a man


Biological Approach
Females and Androgens

Hines (06) better spatial awareness


Biological Approach
Auyeung et al (09)

Sampled amniotic fluid from womb
6-10yrs later, sent questionnaires to mothers: assessed autistic spectrum
Found strong correlation between fT and Autistic assessments
Supports Baron-Cohen (02/04/09) Extreme Male Brain theory of autism


Biological Approach
Criticism of Baron-Cohens EMB theory and the Auyeung et al (09) study

Mothers raise sons expecting emotional inadequacy
Correlation, not causation
Generally limited evidence for EMB
"EMB destigmatises" by perpetuating stereotypes
Cannot define ethnicity the same way
Autism is higher in males
Theory reinforces status quo


Body Image
Dittmar et al (06) Barbie

5-8yrs, S.England
Read story of Barbie/Emme/Control
What are you? What would you like?
Findings: older had greater body dissatisfaction unaltered by study. Barbie was detrimental to self esteem and satisfaction in 5-7yrs. Emme doll created the greatest dissatisfaction between actual body shape and ideal.


Body Image
Criticisms of Dittmar et al (06) study

The dolls had passed puberty
Pre exposure to babies not accounted for
Need role models, not one
Role model: physical appearance or character?


Sex differences
Maccoby & Jacklin (74)

Reviewed 2,000 studies
1. Verbal ability
2. Aggression
3. Visuo-spatial ability
4. Math


Importance of context: deindividuation

Lightdale & Prentice (94)
Deindividuation. Defend or attack on computer game.
Indv: M dropped more bombs
Deindv: dropped same/ F more


Importance of context: conversation

Anderson et al (98)
Dryads have more gender interruptions
Strangers - big gender differences
Friends - smaller gender differences