Flashcards in Development Of Gender Identity Deck (28):
Weinrub et al (1984) : from 31 months children can do what?
Successfully sort photographs of the self into piles of male or female photographs.
Describe themselves with the correct gender.
The beginning of gender labelling.
Bandura (1977) social learning theory
Observation, imitation and reinforcement.
Vicarious conditioning and observational learning.
But Child is portrayed as passive, identity is not constructed.
Adult modelling (Fagot et al, 1992)
Children of more traditional mothers pick up gender labels faster
Adam and Beth
Will, Self & Datan (1976)
Adam or Beth
Train, Doll or Fish
Beth got doll more often, received more smiles too
Adults push babies into a gender direction
Oh appropriate toy
Caldera, Hudson & O'Brien (1989) Sex-Appropriate Toys
18-23m child receives more positive responses for picking up sex-appropriate toys.
Parental influence on gender identity.
Fagot (1977) Peers
Interviews and observations of 3-4yrs.
Criticise peers engaged in gender inappropriate activities.
Reproduce and reinforce rigid gender stereotypes.
Down with the kids
Langlois & Downs (1980)
Asked peers & adults on toy choice
Mothers didn't intervene, Fathers disapprove
Peer reactions the strongest
Particularly negative for boy with girls toy
Houston, we have a TV problem
Houston, Wright, Marquis & Green (1999)
No gender difference in average TV time
Difference in content: boys action orientated, girls diverse and people orientated
Crows at the museum
Crowley et al (2010)
Parents explain scientific exhibits more to their sons than to their daughters.
McHale et al (2001)
Older siblings influence gender typing more than parents
3 stages to Gender Development
2-3 gender labelling (m or f)
4-5 sender stability (m remain m)
6-7 gender constancy (m stays despite appearance changes)
If Janie wants to, can she be a boy?
Will Janie be a boy if she cuts her hair?
Can Johnny play with dolls?
Emmerich et al (77)
1. Refusals, failure to justify
2. Stimulus description, transactional
3. Operational constancy
Gender Similarity Hypothesis
There are more similarities between M and F brains than differences on psychological characteristics.
Gender accounts for 1% of differences
85% of distributions overlap
Large effect size in motor abilities, sexuality and aggression
Criticisms of Cognitive Development Theory
1. Underplays social roles
2. Cognitive advances aren't universal (Frey & Ruble, 92)
3. How much does gender labelling contribute to development?
4. No mention of biology
Criticisms of Social Learning Theory
1. Portrays child as passive in acquiring identity
2. Does not sketch the construction of identity - has many layers and contexts
3. Underplays biological role
Gender Schema Theory
Reconciles social and cognitive models.
Use schemas to make inferences on new people.
Information processing and realisation through interaction and cognitive processes
Martin & Halverson (87)
Martin & Halverson (87)
Gender labelling forms Schema
In/out group behaviour
Need to acknowledge own sex first
Martin, Eisenbud & Rose (95)
If a girl likes a toy, assumes that other girls like it also
Incorporate self into social groups.
Criticisms of Gender Schema Theory
Campbell et al (00)
Gaze duration in simultaneous visual preference paradigm
18m = no self recognition
Preference for M activities increase with age
Toy preference occurs before self recognition / same infant preference - so are toys intrinsically interesting?
Biological Approach to Gender Identity
Money & Ehart (72) MZ twins, penis, raised as F, behaviour
Diamond (82) identity issues in adolescence, lived life as a man
Females and Androgens
Hines (06) better spatial awareness
Auyeung et al (09)
Sampled amniotic fluid from womb
6-10yrs later, sent questionnaires to mothers: assessed autistic spectrum
Found strong correlation between fT and Autistic assessments
Supports Baron-Cohen (02/04/09) Extreme Male Brain theory of autism
Criticism of Baron-Cohens EMB theory and the Auyeung et al (09) study
Mothers raise sons expecting emotional inadequacy
Correlation, not causation
Generally limited evidence for EMB
"EMB destigmatises" by perpetuating stereotypes
Cannot define ethnicity the same way
Autism is higher in males
Theory reinforces status quo
Dittmar et al (06) Barbie
Read story of Barbie/Emme/Control
What are you? What would you like?
Findings: older had greater body dissatisfaction unaltered by study. Barbie was detrimental to self esteem and satisfaction in 5-7yrs. Emme doll created the greatest dissatisfaction between actual body shape and ideal.
Criticisms of Dittmar et al (06) study
The dolls had passed puberty
Pre exposure to babies not accounted for
Need role models, not one
Role model: physical appearance or character?
Maccoby & Jacklin (74)
Reviewed 2,000 studies
1. Verbal ability
3. Visuo-spatial ability
Importance of context: deindividuation
Lightdale & Prentice (94)
Deindividuation. Defend or attack on computer game.
Indv: M dropped more bombs
Deindv: dropped same/ F more