Development of the Nervous and Musculoskeletal Systems for Limb Formation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Development of the Nervous and Musculoskeletal Systems for Limb Formation Deck (81):
1

Begins soon after gastrulation, with differentiation of the ectoderm to form the neural tube

Neurulation

2

Forms the nervous system

Neural tube

3

Occurs with induction of ectoderm by factors from the underlying notochord (a midline rod of mesoderm)

Neurulation and neural tube formation

4

Neuroectodermal cells organize in the midline as a thickening called the

Neural plate

5

Proliferation of neuroectoderm cells of the neural plate results in buckling of the tissue to form a depression called the

Neural groove (w/ lateral neural folds)

6

With further proliferation and more buckling, the edges of the neural folds approximate and fuse in the dorsal midline to form the

Neural tube

7

Neural tube fusion starts in the cervical region and occurs as a

bi-directional "Zipper"

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Neural tube fusion starts in the cervical region and occurs as a bi-directional "Zipper" that closes the neural tube with fusion moving from

Cranial to caudal directions

9

The open (unfused ends) of the neural tube are alled

Neuropores

10

The final step of neurulation, which occurs by the end of week 4, is

Neuropore closure

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What day do the following neuropores close?
1.) Cranial
2.) Caudal

1.) Day 25
2.) Day 28

12

Forms the brain and spinal cord of the CNS

Neural Tube

13

Detach from the dorsolateral edges of the neural tube and migrate throughout the body to form a wide variety of cell types, including ganglia of the PNS

Neural crest cells

14

Defects which mostly result from failure of the neuropores to close

Neural tube defects

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Failed closure of the cranial neuropore results in

Anencephaly

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Failure to form the cranial vault around the cerebral hemispheres

-often lethal

Anencephaly

17

Failed closure of the caudal neuropores results in

Spina bifida

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A defective fusion of the vertebral arches, commonly at L4-S1

Spina bifida

19

A defect in the fusion of vertebral arches without involvement of underlying neural tissue

Spina bifida occulta

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A defect in the fusion of vertebral arches WITH involvement of underlying neural tissue

Spina bifida Cystica

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In spina bifida cystica with meningocele, there is a protrusion of

Meninges

22

In spina bifida cystica with meningomyelocele, there is protrusion of

Neural tissues w/ protruding meninges

23

In spina bifida cystica with rachischisis (or myeloschisis), exposed nerve tissue is permanently damaged by

Amniotic fluid

24

Most neural tube defects can be prevented by supplementation with

Folate

25

The spinal cord’s conus medullaris ends at different locations when comparing the

Fetus, newborn, and adult

26

Up until the 3rd month in utero, the spinal cord extends the

Entire length of the embryo

27

Up until the 3rd month in utero, spinal nerve roots pass through intervertebral foramina located at the

Same level as their segmental origin

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For example, up until the 3rd month in utero, the short S1 spinal nerve root exits through the

S1 intervertebral foramen

29

At birth, the conus medularis ends at the

L3-L4 vertebra

30

With further growth during adulthood, the spinal cord ends at the

L1-L2 vertebrae

31

Cells of the neural tube that form neurons and neuroglia of the CNS

Neuroepithelial cells

32

Primitive neurons that lose the ability to divide as soon as they are formed from neuroepithelium

Neuroblasts

33

Neuroblasts move from neuroepithelium to the mantle layer to form nuclei in

Gray matter of spinal cord

34

Neuroblast migration into the mantle layer and subsequent differentiation forms which two prenatal thickenings?

1.) Alar plates (become dorsal sensory horns)
2.) Basal plates (become ventral & lateral motor horns)

35

Myelinated axon processes (“fibers”) extend from
neuroblasts in mantle layer and into marginal layer to form

White matter of spinal cord

36

What do the following prenatal structures of the spinal cord become postnatally?
1.) Mantle layer
2.) Marginal layer

1.) CNS gray matter
2.) CNS white matter

37

Aggregations of neuron cell bodies in the PNS

Ganglia

38

Sensory neurons that project processes from receptors and into spinal cord

Dorsal root ganglia

39

What are the primary tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system?

1.) Epithelium
2.) Connective tissue
3.) Muscle
4.) Nerve

40

Made up of large, cylinder-shaped cells that are striated and multinucleate

Skeletal muscle

41

What gives rise to skeletal muscle and most connective tissue in MSK?

Mesoderm cells

42

What are two types of connective tissue in the musculoskeletal system?

1.) Connective tissue proper
2.) Specialized connective tissue

43

Includes dermis, tendon, or ligament

Connective tissue proper

44

Specialized connective tissue includes

Bone and cartilage

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Immature embryonic connective tissue made up of fibroblast-like cells surrounded by ECM

Mesenchyme

46

Differentiate into cells of connective tissue

Mesenchymal cells

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Soon after gastrulation in week 3 of development, mesoderm further differentiates and sets the stage for development of the

MSK

48

Bilateral columns of PARAXIAL MESODERM form on on either side of the midline and further differentiate into

Somites

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Within each block/segment, somitic mesoderm cells differentiate and reposition into the

1.) Sclerotome
2.) Dermatome
3.) Myatome

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Forms the axial skeleton

Sclerotome

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Forms the dermis of the skin

Dermatome

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Form skeletal muscles of the body wall and limbs

Myotome

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The mesoderm divides into the

Paraxial and lateral plate mesoderms

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Bilateral columns of lateral plate mesoderm form in the lateral-most parts of the embryo and divides into which two layers?

1.) Parietal/somatic mesoderm
2.) visceral/splanchnic mesoderm

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Like the somite’s mesenchymal cells, SOMATIC MESENCHYMAL CELLS form

Connective tissues

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Forms connective tissues associated with the midline

Somitic mesoderm

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Forms connective tissues away from the midline that include cartilage, bones, tendons, and ligaments of the appendicular skeleton (plus sternum)

Somatic mesoderm

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Skeletal muscle cells ALL initially originate from

Somite myotome cells

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Thus, myotome cells (originally from somite) migrate to the somatic mesoderm to form

Skeletal muscles in anterolateral trunk and limbs

60

Folow the course of the migrating myotome cells

Nerves

61

More specifically, somatic motor axons from a spinal cord segment level extend with the migrating somite
mesoderm cells from the

Same somite level

62

Neural crest cells also form connective tissues in the

Head

63

Forms the cartilage, bone, and tendons/ligaments of the axial skeleton, but not the sternum

Sclerotome

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Forms the cartilage, bone, and tendons/ligaments of the appendicular skeleton, PLUS the sternum

Somatic mesoderm

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In direct ossification, or intramembranous ossification, bone-forming osteoblasts can lay down bone directly on

Mesenchymal membranes

66

In indirect ossification, or endochondral ossification, bone-forming osteoblasts lay down bone along a previously formed

Cartilaginous skeletal template

67

Sclerotome mesenchymal cells migrate to surround the neural tube and notochord. Vertebrae develop from sclerotome of

Two adjacent somites

68

Forms the annulus fibrosis of the intervertebral disc

Sclerotome

69

Forms the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc

Notochord

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Mesenchymal cells form chondrocytes which form a cartilaginous vertebrate that is quickly replaced by bone via

Endochronal ossification

71

Derived from scleretome cells that make up the coastal processes of the developing thoracis vertebrae

Ribs

72

Fibroblasts make

Dermis, tendons, and ligaments

73

Forms bone, cartilage, and tendons/ligaments associated with the vertebral column, ribs, and flat bones of posterior skull

Sclerotome

74

The sternum develops independently of the rest of the axial skeleton and is formed from

Somatic mesoderm

75

As the ribs grow laterall and ventrally from the 12 thoracic vertebrae toward the midline, they fuse with

Coastal cartilages

76

In 1% of the population, cervical ribs can be seen attached to

C7 vertebrae

77

The extra rib may impinge on nerves and arteries associated with innervation into the upper limb, this is called

Thoracic outlet syndrome

78

A rare defect that results from incomplete fusion between the sternal mesenchyme bars

-results in an area of soft tissue and skin between the sternal segments

Cleft sternum

79

In addition to neurulation, induces formation of the vertebral column around the spinal cord

Notochord

80

Many of the flat bones of the skull form from

Somite mesoderm

81

Much of the other components of the skull form from

Neural crest associated with pharyngeal arches

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