Developmental milestones in gender development and comparison of 2 theories Flashcards Preview

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1

Gender-typing research has traditionally focused on three separate but interrelated topics - what are they?

1. the development of gender identity

2. the development of gender-role stereotypes

3. the development of gender-types patterns of behaviour

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Essay structure

1. Intro and structure

2. Milestones in Gender development (Development of the gender concept; development of gender-role stereotypes; development of gender-types behavior)

3. Gender development theories (social learning theory; Kohlberg's cognitive development theory; comparing the two)

4. conclusion

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What are the sub-headings within milestones in gender development?

1. Development of the gender concept

2. Development of Gender role stereotypes

3. Development of gender-types behaviour

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What are the sub-headings within gender development theories?

1. Social learning theory
- direct tuition of gender roles
- observational learning

2. Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory

3. Comparing cognitive developmental theory and social learning theory

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The first step in the development of a gender identity is...

to discriminate males from females and to place oneself in one of these categories

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Simple gender discriminations begin rather early. By 4 months of age, infants have already begun to ....

to match male and female voices with faces in tests of intermodal perceptions (Walker-Andrews et al., 1991);

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by the end of the 1st year, they can ...

reliably discriminate still photographs of men and women (Leinbach and Fagot, 1993).

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Between ages X and Y, children begin to Z their understanding of gender as they acquire and correctly use label, such as “mummy” and “daddy”, and (slightly later) “boy” and “girl” (Leinbach and Fagot, 1986).

2 and 3

verbalise

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By age X to Y, almost all children can accurately label themselves as either boys or girls (Thompson, 1975), although it takes longer for them to grasp ...

2.5 - 3.5

the fact that gender is a permanent attribute

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it takes longer for them to grasp the fact that gender is a permanent attribute. Many 3-5 year olds, for example, think ...

that boys could become mummies or girls daddies, or that a person who changes clothing and hairstyles can become a member of the other sex (Warin, 2000).

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Children normally begin to understand that sex is an unchanging attribute between the ages of X and Y.

5 and 7

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Toddlers begin to acquire [blank] at about the same time that they become aware of their basic identities as boys or girls

gender-role stereotypes

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Toddlers begin to acquire gender-role stereotypes at about the same time that they become aware of their basic identities as boys or girls. In a study demonstrating this... (4 sentences)

Kuhn et al (1978) showed a male doll and a female doll to 2.5-3.5 year olds and then asked each child which of the two dolls would engage in sex-stereotyped activities such as cooking, sewing, playing with dolls, trucks, or trains.

Almost all the 2.5 year olds had some knowledge of gender-role stereotypes.

For example, boys and girls agreed that girls talk a lot, never hit, often need help, like to play with dolls, and like to help their mothers with chores such as cooking and cleaning.

By contrast, these young children felt that boys like to play with cars, help their fathers, and build things.

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What did Deanna Kuhn and colleagues (1978) do in their study?

showed a male doll and a female doll to 2.5-3.5 year olds and then asked each child which of the two dolls would engage in sex-stereotyped activities such as cooking, sewing, playing with dolls, trucks, or trains.

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. Deanna Kuhn and colleagues (1978) showed a male doll and a female doll to 2.5-3.5 year olds and then asked each child which of the two dolls would engage in sex-stereotyped activities such as cooking, sewing, playing with dolls, trucks, or trains. What did they find? Given and example

Almost all the 2.5 year olds had some knowledge of gender-role stereotypes.

For example, boys and girls agreed that girls talk a lot, never hit, often need help, like to play with dolls, and like to help their mothers with chores such as cooking and cleaning.

By contrast, these young children felt that boys like to play with cars, help their fathers, and build things.

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The 2-3 year olds who know the most about gender stereotypes are those who can...

correctly label photographs of other children as boys and girls (Fagot, Leinbach, and O’Boyle, 1992).

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Over the preschool and early primary school years, children learn more and more about what?

the toys, activities and achievement domains considered appropriate for boys and girls

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Eventually, primary school children drawn sharp distinctions between the sexes on X dimensions, learning first the X traits that characterise their own gender, and then the X traits associated with the other sex

psychological dimensions
positive
negative

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What happens by age 10-11?

Children's stereotyping of personality traits begins to rival that of adults

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How does gender-role stereotyping develop during early adolescence?

Thinking about the traits that males and females might display and the hobbies and occupations they might pursue becomes increasingly flexible during early adolescence, as children make the transition from primary to secondary school.

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Thinking about the traits that males and females might display and the hobbies and occupations they might pursue becomes increasingly flexible during early adolescence, as children make the transition from primary to secondary school. However...

soon thereafter, gender role prescriptions once again become less flexible, with both boys and girls showing a strong intolerance of cross-sex mannerisms displayed by either males or females

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DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER-TYPED BEHAVIOUR

When do sex differences in toy preferences develop?

Very early - even before the child has established a clear gender identity or can correctly label various toys as "boy things" or "girl things" (Blakemore et al, 1979)

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DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER-TYPED BEHAVIOUR

Sex differences in toy preferences develop very early - even before the child has established a clear gender identity or can correctly label various toys as "boy things" or "girl things" (Blakemore et al, 1979). For example? Who conducted the study?

Stennes et al (2005) found that in the early pretend play of 13 month olds,

girls emitted more actions and communication gestures centering on themes of pretending to be a parent,

whereas boys' play actions and gestures were often imitations of typically masculine activities (e.g. hammering)

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Boys age 14-22 months usually prefer what toys? What about girls? Who said?

Boys age 14-22 months usually prefer trucks and cars

Girls the same age prefer dolls and soft toys

Smith and Daglish 1977

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Key milestones in gender types behaviour can broadly be broken into 4 age groups - what are they?

0-2 years - preferences for gender-typed toys and same sex playmates emerge

3-6 these preferences intensify

7-11 - these preferences strengthen in boys, while girls develop some interest in masculine activities

12< - as puberty begins conformity to gender-typed behaviour increases, while gender segregation becomes less pronounced

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7-11 - these preferences (for gender typed toys and same sex playmates) strengthen in boys, while girls develop some interest in masculine activities - why might this change in girls occur? Who said?

It may be that girls are becoming increasingly aware that masculine behaviour is more highly valued, and so they aim to model it (Frey and Ruble, 1992)

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12< - as puberty begins conformity to gender-typed behaviour increases, while gender segregation becomes less pronounced - why do both of these things happen?

1. conformity to gender typed behaviour increases - this reflects gender intensification

2. gender segregation becomes less pronounced - the physiological effects of puberty trigger an interest in the opposite sex

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GENDER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES

We will now compare and contrast which two theories?

Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1989; Bussy and Bandura, 1992, 1999)

Lawrence Kohlberg's Cognitive Development Theory (1966)

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According to social learning theorists such as Albert Bandura (1989; Bandura and Bussy, 1992, 1999), children acquire their gender identities and gender role preferences in two ways - what are they?

1. Through direct tuition - children are encouraged and rewarded (usually by parents) for gender-appropriate behaviours and are punished or otherwise discouraged for behaviours considered more appropriate for members of the opposite sex

2. Through observational learning - children adopt the attitudes and behaviours of a variety of same sex models

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According to Bandura's (1989; Bussy and Bandura, 1992 1999) social learning theory - what is direct tuition?

children are encouraged and rewarded (usually by parents) for gender-appropriate behaviours and are punished or otherwise discouraged for behaviours considered more appropriate for members of the opposite sex

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What did Fagot and Leinbach (1989) find in relation to direct tuition of gender roles?

That parents are already encouraging gender appropriate activities and discouraging cross gender play during the second year of life, before children have acquired their basic gender identities or display clear preferences for male or female activities.

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According to social learning theory (1989), the second way children acquire many of their gender types attributes and interests is by X and Y a variety of same sex models. What is this callled?

observing
imitating
observational learning

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The assumption is that boys will see which toys, activities and behaviors are 'for boys' and girls will learn which activities and behaviors are 'for girls' - how?

by selectively attending to and imitating a variety of same-sex models including peers, teachers, older siblings, and media personalities, as well as their mothers or their fathers

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The assumption is that boys will see which toys, activities and behaviors are 'for boys' and girls will learn which activities and behaviors are 'for girls' by selectively attending to and imitating a variety of same-sex models including peers, teachers, older siblings, and media personalities, as well as their mothers or their fathers. However...

there is some question as to how important same sex modelling actually is.

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However, there is some question as to how important same sex modelling actually is - elaborate.

researchers often find that 3-6 year olds learn much about typical patterns of male and female behavior by carefully observing models of BOTH sex

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However, there is some question as to how important same sex modelling actually is; researchers often find that 3-6 year olds learn as much about typical patters of male and female behavior by carefully observing models of both sex. For example?

children of employed mothers, or of fathers who routinely perform such 'feminine' tasks as cooking or cleaning, are less aware of gender stereotypes than are children of more traditional parents (Serbin et al, 1993)

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Lawrence Kohlberg (1966) proposed what kind of theory of gender typing

a cognitive developmental theory

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Kohlberg (1966) proposed a cognitive theory of gender typing that is quite different from social learning theory, and it helps to explain what?

it helps to explain why boys and girls adopt traditional gender roles even when their parents may not want them to.

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What are Kohlberg's (1966) major themes?

1) Gender role development depends on cognitive development - in other words, children must acquire certain unerstandings about gender before they are influenced by their social experiences

2) children actively socialise themselves and are not merely passive pawns of social influence

40

Kohlberg (1966) believed that children passed through 3 stages to acquire a mature gender identity - what were they?

1) basic gender identity
2) gender stability over time
3) gender stability across situations

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Describe basic gender identity (Kohlberg, 1966)

By age 3 children label themselves as boys or girls

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When is the gender concept complete according to Kohlberg (1966)?

When the child realises that one's sex is also stable across situations

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What children have reached the 3rd stage of Kohlberg's gender development what age are they? example

5-7 year olds who have reached this stage are no longer fooled by appearances. They know, for example, that one's gender cannot be altered by cross-dressing or taking up cross-sex activities

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According to Kohlberg, self-socialisation (seeking out same sex models and learning how to act male/female) only begins after children attain gender consistency - why is this a problem?

Because gender typing has been sown to be well under way before the child acquires a mature gender identity

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COMPARING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY AND SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

According to social learning theory, children first learn... and then.... Kohlberg proposed the opposite - he argued that children first... and then...

learn to do 'boy' or 'girl' things because their parents encourage these activities, and then they come to identify with same sex models, thereby acquiring stable gender identity.

establish a stable gender identity and then actively seek out same sex models and other information to learn to act like a boy or a girl

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"I'm treated like a boy, therefore I must be one" - which view?

social learning perspective

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"Hey, I'm a boy, therefore I'd better do everything I can do to find out how to behave like one"

cognitive developmental view

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The processes the two theories emphasise seem to be especially important at...

different periods of development

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Social learning theory (Bandura, 1989) and Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory (1966) have both contibuted in an important way to our understanding of sex differences and gender role development. In fact, the processes the two theories emphasise seem to be especially important at different periods of development - elaborate.

The differential reinforcement that social learning theorists emphasise seems seems to account rather well for early gender typing: young children display gender-consistent behaviors largely because other people encourage these activities.

As a result of this early socialisation, when children reach age 6-7 and realise that that their gender will never change, they begin to pay more attention to same sex models and to decide which attitudes, activities etc. are most appropriate for members of their own gender (Kohlberg's viewpoint)