Developmental psychology Flashcards Preview

pysch with mr robinson > Developmental psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Developmental psychology Deck (50):
1

Brain

The organ in your head made up of nerves. It processes information and controls behaviour.

2

Forebrain

The anterior part of the brain, including the hemispheres and the central brain structures.

3

Midbrain

The middle section of the brain forming part of the central nervous system.

4

Hindbrain

The lower part of the brain that includes the cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata.

5

Anterior

Directed towards the front (when used in relation to our biology).

6

Posterior

Directed towards the back (when used in relation to our biology).

7

Cerebellum

An area of the brain near to the brainstem that controls motor movements (muscle activity).

8

Medulla oblongata

Connects the upper brain to the spinal cord and controls automatic responses. It controls involuntary responses such as sneezing and breathing, as well as heart rate and blood pressure.

9

Involuntary response

A response to a stimulus that occurs without someone making a conscious choice. They are automatic, such as reflexes.

10

Neural connections

Links formed by messages passing from one nerve cell (neuron) to another.

11

Seriation

sorting obejects into an order. Develops during concrete operational stage.

12

Conservation

The child knows that quantity, length or number are not related to shape e.g. juice test

13

Decentration

Ability to take on anothers viewpoint.

14

Egocentric

Unable to see the world from another's point of view.

15

Animism

Belief that objects can behave as if they were alive.

16

Reversibility

Understanding that action can return something to its original state. Develops in the concrete operational stage.

17

Morality

General principle about what is right and wrong.

18

Symbolic play

Children play using objects and ideas to represent other objects and ideas.

19

Schema

Mental representations of the world based on one's own experiences

20

Symbolic Play

Children use other objects e.g. toys to represent other things. This develops at the pre-operationals stage.

21

Sensorimotor stage

Infants use their senses and movements to get information about the world. at first they live in the present. They develop object permanence and learn to control their movements.

22

Pre-operational stage

Children engage in symbolic play. They think in pictures and use symbols, including some words (the beginning of language development). Children are egocentric and show animism. Later in this stage they start reasoning and show centration and irreversibility.

23

Formal operational stage

Develops around 12 years old and is associated with the moral reasoning and deductive reasoning.

24

Concrete operational stage

develops age 7 to 12 and involves development of abilities to such conservation, reversibility, seration and decentration.

25

Equilibrium

When a child's schemas can explain all that they experience - a state of mental balance may have resulted from new accomodation.

26

Assimilation

Incorporating new experiences into existing schemas.

27

Accommodation

When a schema has to be changed to deal with a new experience.

28

Three Mountains Task

An experiment by Piaget and Inhelder which tested egocentricism

29

Mindset

A belief about something which infuence our perceptions, interpretations of situations and how we behave.

30

Fixed Mindset

belief that abilities are unchangeable

31

Growth Mindset

belief that abilities are changeable

32

Gunderson et al (2013)

A natural experiment showing process praise correlates to a belief that effort is worthwhile.

33

3 - 4 weeks

forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain develops.

34

6 weeks

cerebellum starts to develop

35

20 weeks

medulla begins to develop

36

Rehearsal/Drilling

Another word for practice. Can lead to the behaviour/throught becoming automatic.

37

Self-regulation

An individuals ability to manage their own behaviour. Willingham suggests delaying reward can help this develop.

38

Automatic

This happens when something is paraticed and leads to the thought/behaviour being performed with little thought.

39

Working Model of Memory

A model of memory made up the central executive, visuo-spatial sketchpad and phonological loop

40

Motivational Framework

belief that effort drives ability (which can change)

41

Process praise

praising what is being done rather than the individual.

42

Person Praise

praising the individual rather than what they are doing.

43

hetronomous rules

rules put into place by others

44

autonomous rules

rules the individual decides themselves

45

Social Norm

the values and customs of a scoiety directs the individual within its behaviour

46

preconventional stage

A stage in Kholberg's theory, whereby the child is moral believes rules are fixed and makes moral judgements based on their own interst e.g. avoid punishment

47

conventional stage

A stage in Kholberg's theory, whereby the child is moral believes rules are fixed and makes moral judgements based on their own interst e.g. avoid punishment

48

post conventional stage

A stage in Kholberg's theory, whereby the child is moral believes rules are fixed and makes moral judgements based on their own interst e.g. avoid punishment

49

Damon

Nativist theory of moral development, suggesting infants feel empathy and grown to understand why others feel upset

50

nativist

a natural theory/view point