Flashcards in Developmental Psychology: Privation of Attachment Deck (11):
Name the 2 Case studies which show the effects of isolation and privation
> The Koluchova Twins
Describe the Genie study briefly
Genie was locked in her room for 13.5 years strapped to a potty chair because her father thought she was retarded. When she was found she could not speak and could not stand properly. She never recovered socially or mentally. Her lack of recovery may have been due to the early privation in her life, or it may be because of how late she was discovered. Which is well past the critical period Bowlby stated (2.5 years).
Describe the Koluchova study briefly
The Koluchova twins spent 7 years of their life locked up by their stepmother. WHen they were discovered they could not talk, and by age 14 after being looked after by two loving sisters they had near normal intellectual and social functioning. By the age of 20, they were above intelligence and had excellent relationships with the members of their foster family. It is possible that if they are discovered early enough, they can recover.
Evaluate these Case studies
> Firstly Case Studies are using individuals with unique characteristics and backgrounds. This means that this cannot be applied to everyone.
> The Czech Twins had each other to form an attachment, and even the Harlow study showed that the monkeys would form bonds with each other, which makes it difficult to reach any conclusions
Name 2 studies that look into institutional care
> Hodges and Tizard
What did Hodges and Tizard do?
They followed a group of 65 children from early life to adolescence, and before the age of 4 months they were placed in one institution. They were then assessed at regular intervals up to the age of 16.
What did they find?
They found that at an early study of the children found that 70% of the children were described as not able to care deeply about anyone. The 'restored' children were less likely to have formed attachments with their mothers, but the adopted children were as closely attached to their parents as a control group of 'normal' children. However both groups had problems with peer relations.
What do these findings suggest?
Early privation has a negative effect on the ability to form attachments/relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care. This supports Bowlby's view of the Critical period.
What did Rutter do?
Rutter studied a group of around 100 Romanian orphans and assessed them at 4, 6 and 11 years old.
What did they find?
The children who were adopted before the age of 6 month have shown 'normal' social and emotional development. However those who were adopted after 6 months showed disinhibited attachments and had problems with peers.