Developmental Psychology Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Pt. 1 Deck (31):
1

Developmental Psychology

The study of continuity and change across the life span.

2

Number of Sperm in Each Stage of Fertilization

200 million sperm, 200 make it to correct fallopian tube, and one sperm combines with one egg.

3

When an egg and sperm combined...

Zygote.

4

Sperm and egg each carry __ chromosomes.

23.

5

Sperm can carry ___ and ___.

Femald and male.

6

Definition of sex:

Refers to biological status (male, female, intersex).

7

Definition of gender:

Refers to the attitudes, feelings, and behaviours that a given culture associates with a person's biological sex.

8

Definition of gender identity:

Refers to one's sense of oneself as male, female, or transgender.

9

Defintion of gender expression:

A way in which a person acts to communicate gender within a given culture.

10

3 Stages of Prenatal Development:

Germinal, embryonic, and fetal.

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Germinal Stage:

The two week period of prenatal development that begins at conception. Zygote begins to divide into trillions of cells, moves down fallopian tube and implants in uterus. Half of zygotes do not make this journey.

12

Embryonic Stage:

The period of prenatal development that lasts from the second week to the eigth. Embryo begins to take on sex of male or female, cells continue to divide, but differentiate. Body parts develop, differences between XX and XY.

13

Fetal Stage:

The period of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week until birth. Has skeleton and muscles, digestive and respiratory systems, insulating fat, cells in brain develop axons and dendrites. Myelination.

14

Myelination

Formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of the brain cell. Prevents leakage of neural signals that travel along the axon.

15

Brain is developed __ at birth, __ after birth.

25%, 75%.

16

Prenatal environment is affected by ___.

Teratogens.

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Teratogens

Agents that damage the process of development. Includes lead, tobacco, alcohol.

18

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy. Distinctive facial features, abnormalities, cognitive deficits.

19

Effect of tobacco on infant.

Lowers birth weights, more likely to have perceptual and attentional problems in childhood.

20

A fetus can:

Sense stimulation, learn, hear their mother's heart beat, gastrointestinal sounds, and voice.

21

Infancy:

The stage of developmentt that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months.

22

Newborn sight at __ feet is equivalent to adult sight at ___ feet.

20, 600.

23

Habituation

As an object is presented again and again, an infant stares less and less. Can follow moving stimuli and distinguish between what they have seen before and what is novel.

24

Motor Development

The emergence of the ability to execute physical action (crawling, reaching, grasping, walking).

25

Reflexes

Specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation.

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Rooting Reflex

The tendency for infants to move their mouths toward any object that touches their cheek.

27

Sucking Reflex

The tendency to suck any object that enters their moutths.

28

2 Rules of Motor Development:

Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal.

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Cephalocaudal Rule

Top to bottom, describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequency from head to feet (head, arms, trunks, and legs).

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Proximodistal Rule.

Inside to outside, describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery (trunks before elboes and knees, before hands and feet).

31

Research on energetic vs. less energetic babies.

Energetic had to learn how to dampen large circular movements and hold their arms rigid, while less energetic had to learn how to lift their arms against gravity and extend their arms forward.