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Flashcards in Developmental Vocab Deck (66):
1

The sex chromosome found in both men and women; females have two and males have one; one from each parents produces a female child

X Chromosome

2

The sex chromosome found only in males; when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

Y Chromosome

3

In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

Gender

4

Menarche

The first menstrual period

5

Conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

6

Pre-Operational

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

7

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

sensorimotor stage

8

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

object permanence

9

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

Developmental Psychology

10

Identity

Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

11

Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. This may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

12

Interaction

The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

13

Concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

14

Formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

15

In piagets theory the perceptional Childs difficulty taking another's point of view

Egocentrism

16

Behavior genetics

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

17

Environment

Every nongenetic influence from nutrition to the people and things around us

18

Peoples ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict

Theory of mind

19

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

Zygote

20

According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

Basic trust

21

All our thoughts and feeling about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"

Self-concept

22

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

attachment

23

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

Habituation

24

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

Maturation

25

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development

critical period

26

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of minds

Autism

27

The principal that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

Natural selection

28

A random error in gene replication that leads to a change

Mutation

29

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

Stranger Anxiety

30

Our sense of being male or female

Gender Identity

31

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

Gender Typing

32

Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

33

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

34

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

Imprinting

35

the most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

Testosterone

36

Molecular Genetics

The sub field of biology that studies the molecular structure and functions of genes

37

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

38

a set of expected behavior for males or for females

Gender Role

39

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Temperament

40

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Cognition

41

A concept or frame work that organizes and interprets information

Schema

42

Teratogens

Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

43

Fetal alcohol syndrome (fas)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial mis proportions

44

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

Primary Sex Characteristics

45

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

Secondary Sex Characteristics

46

The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" That comes from our group memberships

Social Identity

47

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to adulthood

Adolescence

48

In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

Intimacy

49

For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid- twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

Emerging adulthood

50

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.

puberty

51

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

Menopause

52

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

Identical twins

53

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

Fraternal twins

54

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

Cross-Sectional Study

55

An observational research method in which data is gathered for the same subject repeatedly over a period of time.

Longitudinal Studies

56

An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development

Embryo

57

an unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than 8 weeks after conception

Fetus

58

            the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; DNA segments capable of synthesizing protein 

                                                gene 

59

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all genetic material in an organism's chromosomes 

genome 

60

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

Accommodation

61

interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing Schemas.

Assimilation

62

Infancy

birth to 2 years old (walking and talking)

63

Infancy to Adolescence

Childhood

64

 serious attempt made by a child to perform a task that is patently impossible because of the extreme differences in the size of the objects involved

Scale Error (DeLoache Study)

65

This is the belief that inanimate objects (such as toys and teddy bears) have human feelings and intentions.

Animism

66

cognitive ability to know that things can change and then change back again.

Reversability