The sex chromosome found in both men and women; females have two and males have one; one from each parents produces a female child
The sex chromosome found only in males; when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
The first menstrual period
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. This may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
Concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
In piagets theory the perceptional Childs difficulty taking another's point of view
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Every nongenetic influence from nutrition to the people and things around us
Peoples ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict
Theory of mind
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
All our thoughts and feeling about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of minds
The principal that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Our sense of being male or female
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
the most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
The sub field of biology that studies the molecular structure and functions of genes
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
a set of expected behavior for males or for females
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
A concept or frame work that organizes and interprets information
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal alcohol syndrome (fas)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial mis proportions
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Primary Sex Characteristics
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" That comes from our group memberships
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to adulthood
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid- twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
An observational research method in which data is gathered for the same subject repeatedly over a period of time.
An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development
an unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than 8 weeks after conception
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; DNA segments capable of synthesizing protein
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all genetic material in an organism's chromosomes
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing Schemas.
birth to 2 years old (walking and talking)
Infancy to Adolescence
serious attempt made by a child to perform a task that is patently impossible because of the extreme differences in the size of the objects involved
Scale Error (DeLoache Study)
This is the belief that inanimate objects (such as toys and teddy bears) have human feelings and intentions.
cognitive ability to know that things can change and then change back again.