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Flashcards in Devleopmental Psychology Deck (51):
1

Define developmental psych

A scientific approach which aims to explain growth, change and consistency throughout the lifespan

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Three goals of developmental psych

Describe, explain, and optimise development ( baltes, Reese and lipsitt 1980)

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Define schema

Group of related concepts linked by common feature/semantics

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Assimilation

Adding new knowledge

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Accomodation

Adjusting exciting knowledge to account for new knowledge

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Object permanence

Out of sight, out of mind

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Conservation of number

Two groups of objects with identical number can occupy different amounts of space

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Conservation of volume

Two glasses with different shapes can hold identical volume of water

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Egocentricism

Difficulty understanding others perspectives

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Theory of mind

Ability to understand other people can have differing opinions

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What is the Sally Anne test

A psychological test, used in developmental psych to measure a persons social cognitive ability to attribute false beliefs to others

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Normative development

Typical patterns of change - typically viewed as continual and cumulative process

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Idiographic development

Individual variation in patterns of change

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Cognitive psychology

- it is characterised By the emergence of the ability to think and understand
- It involves changes in thinking reasoning attention memory language and imagination

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The basic components

Schema, Assimination, accomodation, equilbration

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The four stages

Sensorimotor 0-2
Preoperational 2-7
Concrete operational 7-11
Formal operational 11+

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Key features of sensorimotor

Reflexes, simple,co-ordination, learning, hand to mouth, formation of. Internal, mental representations of objects

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Key terms of sensory motor

Grasp reflex, habit formation, goal orientation, cause-effect experimentation creativity

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Preoperational key features

Self centred, linear/logical thought
Focuses on only one characteristic of a problem while ignoring others, use of objects as having life like qualities in play, inability to distinguish own opinion / perspective from others

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How is preoperational measured

Conservation

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Concrete operational key features

Application of logic concrete situations, can sort objects by order or by classifying groups, can apply rule and reverse it

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How is concrete operational measured

Mountain task

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Formal operational key features

Abstract, logical thought that I form sound conclusions and hypothesis, use of trial and error, detective reasoning

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How is formal operational measured

Pengilum task

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Criticisms of Piaget

Lack of familiarity - Donaldson
Siegal - failed to distinguish between competence and preform
Hughes - perspective

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Donaldson’s theory

1984
- unable to see another’s perspective because of slick of familiarity with the situation rather than lacking cognitive ability

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Hughes theory

Found children ages between 3.5-5 could take another persons perspective, no longer appearing egocentric, when given a familiar task e.g police man task

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Micheal siegal

1991
Believes children are unable to conserve in Piaget tasks due to adults breaking the conversations rules children hold
I.e lack of skin in verbal



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Critisms of siegal

He placed too little emphasis on development through interactions

He did acknowledge that social interactions influence the rate at which children move from each stage, however still underplayed the role of social and culture influences

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Strength of siegal

Correct in sequence of milestones

His emphasis on children as active beings transformed education and removed the notion as being empty vessels

Regarded as one of the 20th century’s twenty most influential thinker and scientists

31

Erickson’s stage theory of identify

Sense of identity: describes the enduring personality characteristics of each and everyone of us
Indentity formation: is seen as the continuous challenge with dominant crises characterising various phases of life, starting from infancy through to old age
- resolution of conflict during our lives can lead to the next stage
- unsuccessful resolution can lead to children, adolescents and adults become ‘stuck’ at a particular stage and not developing normally

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Trust vs mistrust

Infancy 0-1
Virtue - hope
- infant is unsure about the world that they live in and looks towards their caregiver for stability and consistency of care. They are dependent on others for food, warmth and love and mistrust others provide these

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Success or trust vs mistrust

Of the infant receives consistent, predictable and reliable care they develop a sense of trust that they can carry with them to other relationships and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can ave hope that as anew crises arise there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a source of support

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Failure of trust vs mistrust

If the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have the confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events. The infant will carry this scene of mistrust with them to other relationships which may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them

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Autonomy vs shame and doubt

Toddler 1-3
Virtue - will
- toddlers learn to walk, talk, feeds themselves and to use toilets, so become autonomous and less
- Erickson states that it is critical that parents allow there children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure
- “self control without a loss of self eestem” gross 1992

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Success of autonomy vs shame and doubt

Successive becoming independent leads to self confidence and self control and mistakes are easily fixed or corrected children become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world

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Failure of autonomy versus Shame and doubt

If children are criticised overly controlled or not given the opportunity to assert themselves they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive and may become overly dependent upon others lack self-esteem and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities

38

Initiative versus guilt?

Early childhood: 3 to 6
Virtue: purpose
– According to bee (1992) This stage offers in the rapid developing years in a child’s life which is a time of figure of action and behaviours that the parent May see is aggressive
- children’s social and motor skills become highly developed by interacting with other children at school
- Play is central to the stage as it provides children with the opportunity to explore the interpersonal skills for initiating activities – children begin to plan activities make up games and initiate activities with others if given the opportunity children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions

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Success of initiative versus guilt

Children will develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Success in this stage will lead to this value.

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failure of Initiative versus guilt

In response to roll confusion or identity crisis and adolescent may begin to experiment with different lifestyles i.e. work education activities also pressuring someone into an identity can result in rebellion is the form of establishing negative identity and in auditing causing this feelings of unhappiness s

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Intimacy versus isolation

Early adult hood: 18 to 40 virtue:Love
We begin to share ourselves more intimately with others weeks be relationships leading towards long-term commitments with someone other than a family member achievement of intimacy with another person is important

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Success of intimacy versus isolation

Can result in happy relationships and a sense of commitment safety and care within a relationship

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Failure of intimacy versus isolation

Avoiding intimacy fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation loneliness and sometimes depression

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Generatively versus stagnation

Middle adult hood: 40 to 65 virtue: care
– Main focus is work and maintenance of family relationships established a settle down with in a relationship begin own families and develop a sense of being a part of a bigger picture

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Success of generatively versus stagnation

Leads to a sense of accomplishment and leaving a legacy for the future

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Failure of generatively vs stagnation

Failing to change the subject we might become stagnant and feel unproductive
- Can also lead to a sense of futility and a sense of person failure which often leads to defensiveness about self projection of blame for Futurity and value onto others
– An aspect of our society which is detrimental to the feeling of contentment and generatively is the threat of unemployment or redundancy

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Integrity versus despair

Late adulthood: 65 to death virtue wisdom
- slowdown a productivity and explore as a retired person
– Time to reflect on one’s contributions as a positive and satisfactory or disappointing and unsatisfactory

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Success is integrity versus despair

Life is regarded as fufilled wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness and also except death in a dignified manner

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Failure of integrity versus despair

Life is regarded as unfilled and death will be despaired and even feared lives as unproductive feel guilt about the past we become just dissatisfied with life and develop despair often leading to depression and homelessness

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Strengths of the Erikson stage theory of identity

- Strong face validity
- Ties together important psychosocial development across the lifespan

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Limitations of Eric’s so theory of stages of identity

– Vague about the causes of development
– No universal mechanism for crisis solution
– doesn’t explain how psychosocial crisis influences personalityAt a later age
– No objective was assessing whether a persona Has passed or failed a particular stage