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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (28)
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1

Diabetics are __X more prone to blindness, __X more prone to renal disease, __X more prone to gangrene, __X more prone to myocardial infarct

Blindness - 25X
Gangrene - 20X
Renal disease - 17X
Myocardial infarct - 2X

2

How many people have diabetes in the US?

26 million children and adults
80 million prediabetics

3

What's the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 - destruction of islet of Langerhan cells. Insulin-dependent
Type 2 - Insulin resistance

4

What is secondary diabetes?

Disease process that leads to diabetes.
Pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis

5

What is gestational diabetes?

4% of pregnant women develop diabetes in the 2nd/3rd trimester. Tends to go away with time

6

How is diabetes diagnosed with Fasting Blood Sugar Level (BSL)?

> 126 mg/dl repeated twice
Normal: 70 - 110 mg/dl

7

How is diabetes diagnosed with Random plasma glucose?

> 200 mg/dl

8

How is diabetes diagnosed with HbA1c?

> 6.5%

9

What is the standard diagnosis test for diabetes in the US?

fasting blood sugar

10

What is the oral glucose tolerance test?

standard in Europe
Blood levels measured after fasting and intake of 1.75 grams of glucose per kg of body weight

11

How does the HbA1C test work?

glucose attaches to oxygen carrying protein on RBC. Amount of glucose attached depends on the amount of glucose in the blood.

12

What happens as the HbA1c level rises?

Oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin molecule decreases

13

What's the rough formula for calculating HbA1c?

(A1c X 30) - 60

14

What cholesterol level leads to a two fold risk increase for retinal hard exudates?

>240 mg/dl
Normal - <240 mg/dl

15

What is a potential cause of unilateral diabetic retinopathy?

asymmetric carotid artery disease

16

How are Hematocrit levels related to DR?

Decreasing hematocrit = increasing DR

17

Why do diabetic patients get anemia?

Diabetics have low erythropoietin which leads to low bone marrow production of RBCs

18

How is microalbuminuria related with DR?

Patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria have a 3 fold increased risk of DR

19

Diabetics typically have what type of pupil deficiency?

Sympathetic denervation to iris muscles (CONSTRICTED pupil)

20

What percentage of diabetics will experience a palsy?

4%

21

What type of color deficiency may present secondary to diabetic changes on the retina?

Tritan defect

22

What is the difference between an internal and external Hordeolum?

Internal - infection of meibomian gland
External - infection of follicle, sweat gland of Moll, or sebaceous gland of Zies

23

What is Xanthelasma?

Yellow plaque that occurs near the inner canthus of the eyelid

24

What is the most common form of cutaneous Xanthelasma?

Xanthelasma palpebrarum

25

What are the five microcirculatory alterations that occur in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients?

1. Microanuerysms
2. Diurnal variations in venous pressure
3. Vasoconstrictions
4. Venous tortuosity
5. Subconjunctival hemorrhage

26

What kind of infections are diabetics more prone to?

Staph blepharitis
Staph conjunctivitis

27

What is the difference between FFA and OCT readings?

FFA - measures leakage
OCT - measures elevation and thickness of fundus

28

What are three main corneal changes in diabetics?

1. Reduced corneal sensitivity
2. Basement membrane alterations
3. Folds in Descemet's membrane