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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (22)
1

What is the trend in diabetes mellitus?

increased; increased 76% in 30 yo

2

What happens with low glucose in normal individual?

insulin decrease; glucagon secretion increases

3

What cells in the pancreas produce insulin?

Islets of Langerhans
Beta cells

4

What is diabetes insipidis?

slide

5

What is type 1 diabetes?

inability to produce insulin

6

What is type 2 diabetes?

slide

7

What activates release of insulin?

food
hormone

8

What inhibits release of insulin?

exercise
neural influences

9

What is insulin resitance?

decreased ability of liver, adipose, muscle to respond to normal levels of insulin

10

What biochemical damage occurs in diabetes?

Macrovascular complications
Microvascular

11

What specific tissues are sensitive to damage?

capially endothelial in retina
renal mesangial glomerulus
Schwann cells in peripheral nerves

12

Describe Polyol pathway.

Enzyme aldose reductase reduces toxic aldehydes to sugar alcohols (slide)

13

Too much sorbitol changes

osmotic pressure; burning up NADPH

14

What are AGEs (Advanced Glycation Endproducts)?

low molecular weight
easily diffuse out of cells
crosslink with two proteins that can no longer be used or recycled

15

If proteins are crosslinked by AGEs, what is affected?

gene regulators
signaling
circulating proteins (complement, albumin)

16

What is Hemoglobin A1C?

long term glucose damage

17

A1C is reversible. (T/F)

False

18

What is a RAGE?

receptor for advanced glycation endproducts
(any sugar can produce RAGE)

19

Describe hyperglycemia induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation.

slide
extra glucose activates DAG which activated other signaling moleculres

20

How does excess glucose increase hexosamine pathway?

glucose is shunted into hexosamine pathway ;
protein can be stuck in active form is N-acetyl glucosamine is added (instead of phosphorylation)

can lead to long (relisten)

21

How can too much glucose cause damage?

too much reactive oxygen species

22

Which enzyme is key breaking point?

GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase
involved in the 4 pathways