Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (22)
What is the trend in diabetes mellitus?
increased; increased 76% in 30 yo
What happens with low glucose in normal individual?
insulin decrease; glucagon secretion increases
What cells in the pancreas produce insulin?
Islets of Langerhans
What is diabetes insipidis?
What is type 1 diabetes?
inability to produce insulin
What is type 2 diabetes?
What activates release of insulin?
What inhibits release of insulin?
What is insulin resitance?
decreased ability of liver, adipose, muscle to respond to normal levels of insulin
What biochemical damage occurs in diabetes?
What specific tissues are sensitive to damage?
capially endothelial in retina
renal mesangial glomerulus
Schwann cells in peripheral nerves
Describe Polyol pathway.
Enzyme aldose reductase reduces toxic aldehydes to sugar alcohols (slide)
Too much sorbitol changes
osmotic pressure; burning up NADPH
What are AGEs (Advanced Glycation Endproducts)?
low molecular weight
easily diffuse out of cells
crosslink with two proteins that can no longer be used or recycled
If proteins are crosslinked by AGEs, what is affected?
circulating proteins (complement, albumin)
What is Hemoglobin A1C?
long term glucose damage
A1C is reversible. (T/F)
What is a RAGE?
receptor for advanced glycation endproducts
(any sugar can produce RAGE)
Describe hyperglycemia induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation.
extra glucose activates DAG which activated other signaling moleculres
How does excess glucose increase hexosamine pathway?
glucose is shunted into hexosamine pathway ;
protein can be stuck in active form is N-acetyl glucosamine is added (instead of phosphorylation)
can lead to long (relisten)
How can too much glucose cause damage?
too much reactive oxygen species