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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (16):
1

Exocrine glands

In pancreas

Has ducts

Digestive enzymes: amylase & lipase

2

What does the liver do in concern with diabetes ?

1. Gluconeogenesis (new)
2. Glucogenolysis (breaking down)
3. Storing glucagon

3

Type one diabetes versus type two

Type one: not enough insulin
IDDM: insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
(On insulin for life)
Type two: insulin resistance
NIDDM: non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

4

Humalog (lispro)

Onset
Peak
Duration

0.25
1 hour
6-8 hours

5

Regular
Humulin R

Onset
Peak
Duration

30-60 min
2-3 hours
8-12

6

Endocrine glands

In Pancreas

DUCTLESS --> directly into blood

7

NPH
HUMULIN N

ONSET
PEAK
DURATION

1-1.5 hours
6-8 hours
24 hour

8

What is it important to know the peaks of the insulins?

The peaks are the times they're most likely to have a hypoglycemic reaction --> time for snacks *

9

Hyperglycemia side effects

Poly uria (increased urination)
Polydipsia (thirsty)
Polyphagia (hungry)
Weight loss
Fatigue
Dry, itchy skin
Poor wound healing
Visual changes
Change of LOC

10

Hypoglycemia side effects

Hunger
Pallor
Nausea
Tachycardia
Fatigue
Numbness
Palpitations
Confusion
Fainting
Change of LOC

11

Four medications that increase BS

Diuretics
Glucocorticoids
Beta blockers
Sympathomimetic

12

Teaching points for a patient on insulin

Use U-100 syringes with U-100 insulin
Teach s/s of increase or decreased BS
Aware of meds that alter BS
teach patient how to test BS
change activity/diet/stress can change insulin requirements
Assess knowledge and management
Store opened vials at room temp. And stored ones in the fridge
Rotate sites
Medic alert bracelet
Give at same time
Diet- weight loss
Exercise
Keep glucose/hard candy handy
Mixing insulins
Assess sights

13

MOA of sulfonylureas (glyburide)
-diabeta
-gipizide
Micronase

Indirectly enhances the production of insulin and stimulates the release from beta cells
-decreases hepatic glycogenolysis/gluconeogenesis
---> stimulates pancreas to produce insulin

14

Side effects of the sulfonylureas (glyburide)

Hypoglycemia & metallic taste

15

Biguanide antihyperglycemics
(Glucophage)
(Metformin)

MOA

Works in liver to decrease glyconeogenolysis
-decreases intestinal absorption of glucose
-helps get glucose across the cell

16

Side effects/teaching for biguanide antihyperglycemics

Diarrhea, GI: n/v, abdominal discomfort

Teach for hypoglycemia effects
1.reacts with contrast medium
-check BUN/Creat (before & after)
2. Contraindicated in renal/hepatic disease
3. Synergistic effects with insulin/sulfonylureas