Incidence of diabetes?
Hyperglycemia producing hormones?
Diagnoses of Type 1 diabetes?
- Presence of random blood glucose level higher than 200mg/dL
- Hemoglobin A1C level above 7.0%
What does hemoglobin A1C tell you?
Incidence of occurence of all types of “Primary” Diabetes?
Types or causes of “Secondary” or “Other” Diabetes (other than Type 1 and 2)?
What is IDDM Type 1?
IDDM Type I
Long term management
IDDM Type I
Onset/peak/duration of Rapid-acting insulin
Onset/peak/duration of Regular or Short-acting insulin
Onset/peak/duration of Intermediate-acting insulin
Onset/peak/duration of long-acting insulin
Inhaled Insulin (Afrezza)
What strength insulin will you possibly encounter, but is mostly used in veterinary practice?
Most common strength of insulin in US?
Intraop usually administered IV not SQ ALWAYS flush line well, what are normal infustion rates?
How much does 1U of insulin lower BG (mg/dL)?
What is NIDDM- Type 2?
Type 2 DM Causes
What is Gestational Diabetes?
Long-term Diabetes Mellitus
What is Microangiopathy?
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
What are Oral Anti-diabetic Medications, how do they work?
Acute complications of Diabetes - Hypoglycemia
Acute complications of Diabetes - Hyperglycemia
What exacerbates hypoglycemia, and what is the best way to treat it?
Diagnosement and effects of hyperglycemia?
Clinical implications of hyperglycemia?
Diagnosement of metabolic syndrome?
At least three of the following:
- Fasting plasma glucose >110mg/dL
- Abdominal obesity
- Serum triglyceride level >150mg/dL
- Serum HDL <40mg/dL
- Blood pressure >130/85
Normal range for HbA1C?
What do secretagogues do (sulfonylureas, meglitinides)?
Increase insulin availability
How do biguanides (metformin) work?
Suppress excessive hepatic glucose release by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhance utilization of glucose transport across cell membranes.
Decrease plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, postprandial hyperlipidemia and plasma FFA
How do the thiazolidinediones or glitazones (rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) work?
Improve insulin sensitivity by binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors located in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue.
Influence the expression of genes encoding proteins for glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and atherogenesis
How do a-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) work?
Delay GI glucose absorption by inhibiting a-glucosidase enzymes in the brush border of enterocytes in the proximal SI, which delays glucose absorption.
Administered before a main meal to ensure their presence at the site of action.