Diabetes and Nutrition across the Lifespan Flashcards Preview

MD1 Metabolism > Diabetes and Nutrition across the Lifespan > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes and Nutrition across the Lifespan Deck (17):
1

What proportion of pregnancies are affected by diabetes in pregnancy?

1 in 20

2

What is gestational diabetes?

Natural increase in hyperglycaemic hormones
Actions not adequately compensated

3

What happens to gestational diabetes after the baby is born?

Usually goes away

4

What is the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for the mother and infant if the mother has had any sort of diabetes during pregnancy?

High risk

5

What are the health risks associated with gestational diabetes in the mother?

High BP
Pre-eclampsia
Obesity
Long-term: T2D

6

What are the health risks associated with gestational diabetes in the infant?

Underweight/overweight
Preterm birth
Respiratory distress syndrome
Hypoglycaemia
Long-term
- Obesity
- T2D

7

What are the risk factors for gestational diabetes?

Previous gestational diabetes
Prediabetes
Ethnicity
Older maternal age (40+)
Family history of diabetes
Obesity
PCOS

8

How does maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy affect obesity in childhood?

2-3x increased risk

9

What is the risk of Indigenous women having diabetes in pregnancy compared to non-Indigenous women?

More likely

10

What are the health risks associated with a low birth weight (

More likely to experience rapid weight gain after birth
Rapid weight gain in first 4 months associated with obesity in school aged children
Associated with
- Central adiposity
- Metabolic syndrome
- Hypertension
- CVD
- T2D in adulthood

11

What are the health risks associated with a high birth weight (>4.5 kg)?

Increased risk of adolescent obesity

12

How are gestational diabetes babies more likely to be delivered?

Caesarean

13

What is the relationship between breastfeeding and diabetes in pregnancy?

Breastfeeding infants born to mothers with diabetes in pregnancy have reduced risk of obesity and T2D

14

How long is exclusive breastfeeding recommended for?

6 months

15

How does the composition of breast milk change throughout a feed?

Water > protein > fat

16

When should solid foods be introduced to the baby?

From around 6 months
Iron-rich foods

17

What are the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents?

Overweight/obese and any 2 of following
- Blood relative with T2D
- Certain ethnic groups
- Signs of insulin resistance