Diabetes Mellitus Drugs Flashcards Preview

Endocrine > Diabetes Mellitus Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus Drugs Deck (46):
1

Rapid acting insulins
(Drugs)

- Lispro
- Aspart
- Glulisine

2

Short acting insulins
(Drugs)

Regular insulin

3

Intermediate acting insulins
(Drugs)

Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin

4

Long acting insulins
(Drugs)

- Detemir
- Glargine

5

Rapid acting insulins
(Onset)

5-20 minutes

6

Short acting insulins
(Onset)

30-60 minutes

7

Intermediate acting insulins
(Onset)

2-4 hours

8

Long acting insulins
(Onset)

1-3 hours

9

Rapid acting insulins
(Peak Effect)

1-2 hours

10

Short acting insulins
(Peak Effect)

2-4 hours

11

Intermediate acting insulins
(Peak Effect)

6-10 hours

12

Long acting insulins
(Peak Effect)

No peak

13

Rapid acting insulins
(Duration)

3-4 hours

14

Short acting insulins
(Duration)

5-7 hours

15

Intermediate acting insulins
(Duration)

18-28 hours

16

Long acting insulins
(Duration)

20-24 hours

17

Biguanides
(Drugs)

Metformin

18

Sulfonylureas
(Drugs)

- First generation:
* Chlorpropamide
* Carbutamide
* Tolbutamide
* Tolazamide
* Acetohexamide
* Tolhexamide
* Metahexamide
- Second generation:
* Glimepiride (also classified as third generation)
* Glyburide (Glibenclamide)
* Glibornuride
* Gliclazide
* Glipizide
* Gliquidone
* Glisoxepide
* Glyclopyramide

19

Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones)
(Drugs)

- Pioglitazone
- Rosiglitazone

20

Meglitinides
(Drugs)

- Nateglinide
- Repaglinide

21

GLP-1 Analogs
(Drugs)

- Exenatide
- Liraglutide (SC injection)

22

DPP-4 Inhibitors
(Drugs)

- Linagliptin
- Saxagliptin
- Sitagliptin

23

Amylin Analogs
(Drugs)

Pramlintide (SC injection)

24

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors
(Drugs)

- Canagliflozin
- Dapagliflozin
- Empagliflozin

25

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
(Drugs)

- Acarbose
- Miglitol

26

Biguanides
(Mechanism of Action)

- Exact mechanism unknown
- Decrease gluconeogenesis
- Increase glycolysis
- Increase peripheral glucose uptake (increase insulin sensitivity)

27

Sulfonylureas
(Mechanism of Action)

Increase insulin secretion by closing K+ channels in beta-cells

28

Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones)
(Mechanism of Action)

Increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues by binding to Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) nuclear transcription regulator (genes activated regulate fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism, increase insulin receptor expression and levels of adiponectin)

29

Meglitinides
(Mechanism of Action)

Stimulate post-prandial insulin release by binding K+ channels on beta-cells membranes (site differs from sulfonylureas)

30

GLP-1 Analogs
(Mechanism of Action)

- Increase glucose-dependent insulin release
- Decrease glucagon release
- Decrease gastric emptying
- Increase satiety

31

DPP-4 Inhibitors
(Mechanism of Action)

Inhibit DPP-4 enzyme that deactivates GLP-1, thereby increase glucose-dependent insulin release, decrease glucagon release and gastric emptying with increase satiety

32

Amylin Analogs
(Mechanism of Action)

- Decrease gastric emptying
- Decrease glucagon release

33

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors
(Mechanism of Action)

Block reabsorption of glucose in PCT

34

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
(Mechanism of Action)

Inhibit intestinal brush border alpha-glucosidases which will lead to delayed carbohydrates hydrolysis and glucose absorption, thereby decreasing post-prandial hyperglycemia

35

Insulins
(Adverse Effects)

- Hypoglycemia
- Lipodystrophy
- Hypersensitivity reactions (rare)

36

Biguanides
(Adverse Effects)

- Lactic acidosis (avoid in renal insufficiency and CHF)
- GI upset

37

Sulfonylureas
(Adverse Effects)

- Increase risk of hypoglycemia (especially with first generation):
* Renal failure
* Insulin
* Cimetidine
* Salicylates
* Sulfonamides
- Weight gain
- First generation has disulfiram-like effects

38

Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones)
(Adverse Effects)

- Weight gain
- Edema
- Hepatotoxicity
- Heart failure
- Increase risk of fractures

39

Meglitinides
(Adverse Effects)

- Hypoglycemia (increased risk with renal failure)
- Weight gain

40

GLP-1 Analogs
(Adverse Effects)

- Nausea and vomiting
- Pancreatitis
- Modest weight loss

41

DPP-4 Inhibitors
(Adverse Effects)

- Mild urinary or respiratory infections

42

Amylin Analogs
(Adverse Effects)

- Hypoglycemia (in setting of mistimed prandial insulin)
- Nausea

43

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors
(Adverse Effects)

- Glucosuria
- UTIs
- Vaginal yeast infections
- Hyperkalemia
- Dehydration (orthostatic hypotension)

44

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
(Adverse Effects)

GI disturbances including flatulence, discomfort and diarrhea

45

Drugs that cause hyperglycemia
(Mechanism of Action)

- Thiazide diuretics: by causing hypokalemia leading to hyperpolarization of beta-cell membrane (K+ channels remain open)
- Diazoxide or Minoxidil (anti-hypertensive): keeps the K+ channel open (used in Rx of insulinoma)
- Atypical antipsychotics: complex mechanism

46

Anti-diabetic drugs used for treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
(Enumerate)

- Metformin
- Pioglitazone
- Rosiglitazone