Diabetes Mellitus - Unit 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus - Unit 1 Deck (29):
1

What does glucagon do?

stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose and increases blood glucose level.

2

Insulin - key for cell to take in insulin. T/F?

True!

3

What are the differences between type 1 and type 2?

Type 1 is Insulin Dependent and Type 2 is Insulin Resistant

4

What are the symptoms of impaired insulin production? (3 P's)

Polyuria, Polydipsia and Polyphagia (wanting to eat a lot)

5

What happens with untreated insulin deficiency?

Cell starvation, fat breakdown, ketones and then acidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis!)

6

What are some assessment findings for DKA?

3 P's, Increased RR/HR, low BP, dry skin, elevated blood glucose (above 300)

7

With DKA, the potassium is pulled into the blood, so it appears high but it isn't. T/F?

True!

8

What are the interventions for DKA?

Isotonic Normal Saline, Insulin

9

With DKA, the goal is to reduce sugar levels as quickly as possible - like drop the numbers big time. T/F?

False - we want to drop BS by 50-75 mg/dL/hour

10

DKA for Diabetic Patient - what might cause this?

Infection!

11

Insulin is not absorbed faster in muscle tissue. T/F?

False - it is!

12

Anything consistently over ____ (sugar level) is hyperglycemia.

150.

13

With insulin (the fast acting kind), give about 15 minutes before a meal. T/F?

True!

14

Hyperglycemia - what is the difference between macrovascular and microvascular complications?

Macro = big vessels.
Micro = small vessels.

15

Macrovascular Complications = what are some?

These is atherosclerosis/vasoconstriction, etc. This can lead to things like heart attack, stroke, extremity pain, poor wound healing.

16

What are some microvascular complications?

These are things like retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.

17

What's the normal sugar range for diabetic patients?

70-130

18

What is the rapid acting insulin?

Aspart, Lyspro

19

What is the fast acting insulin?

Regular Insulin

20

What is the intermediate active insulin?

Cloudy/NPH

21

What is the long acting insulin?

Glargine (Lantus), Detemir (Levimir)

22

Fast acting insulin - used for ____

Intermediate Acting Insulin - used for ____

Long Acting - used for ___.

Fast Acting - meals/hyperglycemic moments.
Intermediate = fasting, between meals, overnight control.
Long Acting = all day/all night control.

23

When administering insulin, stick to one area and rotate. T/F?

True!

24

What is a brittle diabetic?

A diabetic that is not easily controlled - goes up and down and all over the place.

25

I U of fast acting Insulin for 15 grams of carbs. T/F?

True!

26

If you're Type 1 and have ketones, should you exercise?

NOPE!

27

What are some hypoglycemia symptoms?

Sweating/shaking, anxiety, headache, irritability, confusion, vision changes (at the later part), etc.

28

For someone with diabetes, their diet should be __ to __ % calories from carbs, __ to __ % of calories from protein.

45-65% for carbs and 15-20% for protein.

29

Diabetic Patients - at least ___ G of carbs per day.

130.