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WPP II Final Exam > Diabetes WPPII > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes WPPII Deck (53):
1

Diabetes Type I or II -
Pancreas does not produce insulin?

Type I

2

Insulin is a hormone formed in the pancreas that does what?

Decrease blood glucose levels - by allowing glucose to enter cells for energy. Out of blood and into cells of muscle, fat and liver cells, where it is converted into glycogen or stored as fat.

3

Glucose is a hormone formed in the pancreas that does what?

Increases blood glucose levels - Promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver, which is then released into the blood stream.

4

Polyphagia?

Catabolic state leaving people hungry. Weight loss. Cells starved for energy.

5

Glycosuria?

Glucose in urine. Blood filtered through kidneys some spills into urine.

6

Polyuria?

Increase in urine. Glucose osmotically active.

7

Polydipsia?

Thirst due to so much urination.

8

Type I

Lifelong treatment insulin

9

Complications of Type 1

1) Ketoacidosis (DKA). Acidity of blood.
2) Kussmaul Respiration - Labored breathing
3) Hyperkalemia - Acidic blood sends potassium out of cells.

10

How does Stress or Infection affect Diabetes Type I?

Raises epinephrine - raises glucagon - elevate blood sugars

11

Treatment for Type I Diabetes?

1) Insulin
2) Increased Fluid
3) Replace electrolytes / potassium

12

Complications Type II?

1) Body produces too much glucose due to insulin resistance of cells Hyperplasia and Hypertrophy in beta cells in pancreas
2) Amylin causes Hypoplasia and Hypotrophy which causes beta cells to die off and glucose production to decrease
3) Too much sugar in blood Hyperglycemia which leads to Polyphasia / Glucosuryia / Polyuria / Polydipsia

13

Ketoacidosis (DKA) more common in Type I or Type II?

Type I

14

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS) more common in Type I or Type II?

Type II

15

What happens in Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS) ?

Cells shrivel. Can affect brain cells. Mental problems.

16

Fasting 110 -125mg/dl indicates:
1) Diabetes
2) Pre diabetes

2) Pre diabetes

17

Fasting >126mg/dl indicates:
1) Diabetes
2) Pre diabetes

1) Diabetes

18

NON fasting >200mg/dl:
1) Diabetes
2) Pre diabetes

1) Diabetes

19

Oral Glucose tolerance test every 2 hours 140-199mg/dl:
1) Diabetes
2) Pre diabetes

2) Pre diabetes

20

Oral Glucose tolerance test every 2 hours >200mg/dl:
1) Diabetes
2) Pre diabetes

1) Diabetes

21

HbA1-C test for glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4%?
1) Diabetes
2) Pre diabetes

2) Pre diabetes
HbA1-C test is a lab test that monitors ave. level of blood sugar over 3 months.

22

1) Arteriolosclerosis
2) Stroke heart attack
3) Diabetic Retinopathy
4) Blindness
5) Nephrotic Syndrome
6) Dialysis
7) Nerve damage numbness
8) ANS dysfunction
9) Ulcers - esp on feet

Diseases that can result from from uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus?

23

True or False: Type I is an autoimmune disease?

True: An autoimmune disease in which the β-islet cells of the pancreas are destroyed, resulting in severe insulin deficiency.
antibodies to β-cell components are often present.

24

True or False: Type I is not associated with obesity?

True: Patients are usually under 30 y.o.at time of onset.

25

More than 90% of all diabetic persons in the United States are included under this classification?

Type II

26

True or False: Type II is not associated with obesity?

False: 80% of people are obese

27

True or False: Type II has a strong genetic influence?

True

28

True or False: Type II onset is over 40?

Ture: although there is an increase in younger patients

29

True or False: Type II has greater prevalence in twins?

True: 80-100% versus 40%

30

Type II is higher in Caucasian or African American population?

African American

31

Has circulating Islet Cell antibodies?

Type I

32

Previously known as IDDM (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) versus NIDDM?

Type 1 versus Type II

33

Previously known as non-insulin diabetes?

Type II

34

Metformin, diet, oral hypoglycemics

Type 2

35

Serum insulin level LOW versus HIGH.

Type I versus Type II

36

Loss of beta cells.

Type I

37

Antibodies to Beta Cells?

Type I

38

Onset Gradual?

Type II

39

Head of pancreas is near or far from duodenum?

Near

40

Tail of pancreas is near or far from duodenum?

Far

41

What is adipose tissue?

Located beneath skin around internal organs, in bone marrow, muscles and breast tissue.

42

When blood glucose levels increase which hormone will be secreted?

Insulin

43

Which type of diabetes is more common?

Type II

44

Impaired glucose tolerance?

Pre-Diabetes: higher levels of blood plasma glucose. Develop Type 2 if untreated.

45

1) Pancreatic Disease
2) Drug Induced (Glucocorticoids)
3) Increased Insulin resistance
4) Gestational Diabetes

Other etiologies of DM
1) Pancreatic Disease
2) Drug Induced (Glucocorticoids)
3) Increased Insulin resistance secondary to meds( Dilantin / phenytoin)
4) Gestational Diabetes

46

Criteria for testing?

Everyone over 45, every 3 years.

47

This measure reflects the average blood sugar over a period of several weeks?

Glycosylated Hemoglobin (Hbg A1c)

48

Classic Triad of DM?

Polyuria / Polydipsia / Polyphagia

49

Glucophage also known as?

Metformin (a biguanide) Type II

50

Macrovascular Disease?

Accelerated atherosclerosis leading to coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, noninfectious gangrene.

51

Serum Glucose at onset of Hypoglycemia for men and women?

Men <40mg
women <45mg
Most often in insulin treated patients

52

Sx of hypoglycemia?

Palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, dizziness, headache, clouding of vision, mental dullness, fatigue, confusion, coma

53

Diabetic Emergencies?

1. DKA
2. HHs
3. Hypoglycemia