Diagnostics Equine Musculoskeletal (Renate) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diagnostics Equine Musculoskeletal (Renate) Deck (23):
1

Waht are the big 7 in orthopaedic disease complexes in horses?

1. OA
2. OCD
3. Fx (fatigue or impact)
4. Tendonitis
5. Navicular dz
6. Wounds
7. Laminitis

2

Why are some iaging modalitis chosen over others in horse?

Need for GA - 1% death risk for hroses is a big deal!

3

What type of image do radiographs produce?

"summation image"

4

Other names for OA

- arthrosis, DJD

5

What are osteophytes? What similar structures are seen elsewhere?

> New bone fomation along the 'lip' edges of articular surface (trying to stabilise the joint)
> Inthesiophytes = new bone formation at attachement of a soft tissue structure

6

Can cartilage be seen on rads?

NO - just see narrowed/widened join space

7

What is high ringbone?

OA of the pastern joint -> MINIMAL synovial response, straight to swelling d/t palpable bony changes above the coronary band

8

Outline the stages of pathogeneis assocaited with OA

1. joint effusion (bog spavin in the hock)
- excessive synovial fluid d/t irritation and inflammatio nof the synovial membrane
2. cartilage damage
3. boney damage

9

How do horses IVDs differ to smallies?

No nucleus pulposus (only fibrous tissue) so dont get disk problems

10

How are the 3 main stages of damage associated with OA visable on rads?

1. joint effusion and osteophytes
2. articular artilage: narrowed joint space
3. subchondral bone: sclerosis/lucency (lucency worse prognostically as body given up -> lysis)

11

Wht may narrowing of the joint eventually lead to?

Ankylosis

12

What is surgical ankylosis termed? How is this performed?

Arthrodesis
- chemical/physical destruction of cartilage
- only possible in low motion joints eg. DIT and IT joints mainly for shock absorption not movement

13

What is bone spavin?

OA of the DIT and IT joints -> ankylosis

14

Gol standard diagnostic method for OA?

MRI

15

What is prognosis and tx after dx based on?

> structures affected (high v low motion joints)
> type of disease (1*/2*, traumatic, devlopmental)
> advanced disease? (early v late stage)

16

How does inflamed synovial fluid appear cf. healthy?

decreased viscosity (MORE watery!!!)

17

What are corns?

Inflammation of a specific area of hoof wall (dx with hoof testers and hoof knife, easy - shouldnt get to referral stage to be dx wih corns!)

18

Tx stategies for OA?

- strategic analgesia
- joint supplements
- novel tx concepts
- salvage procedures
- excercise modification/physio

19

What cause the changes in synovial fluid composition when inflamed?

- PGE2 and MMPs: V proteoglycans, ^ water and ^ collagen breakdown
- IL1 and TNFa
- PG, LT, free radicals and neuropeptides

20

Where do steroids and NSAIDs act?

> steroids PLA2
- cell membrane phospholipid -> arachadonic acid stage
> NSAIDs COX
- arachadonic acid -> PGs and Thromboxanes
- 5-lipoxygenase pathway -> leukotrienes
pain,swelling and cartilage degradation, heat (inflammation)

21

Prevention of OA?

- v BCS
- shoeing and correct foot shape
- other things...

22

Look up aetiology/pathogenesis, clinical signs, imaging signs, Dxx, Dx, Prog and Tx of all the big 7

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23

Most common site of lameness in the horse?

- foot (difficult to relate pain o secific structures by direct visualisation, palpation or manipuplation)