Diaphragm, Kidneys & Posterior Abdominal Wall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diaphragm, Kidneys & Posterior Abdominal Wall Deck (68):
1

Know where the phrenic nerves and vessels are and their pathways.

Deal.

2

The phrenic nerve originates from which spinal segments?

C3-C5

3

T/F the phrenic nerve has both motor and sensory components?

Troooth

4

If you have a spinal cord injury and your diaphragm is paralyzed, where is the diaphragm found?

High in the thorax because it can't contract, which makes it descend (can be unilateral hemidiaphragm paralysis)

5

Where is the median arcuate ligament found?

It arches over the aorta

6

Where are the two medial arcuate ligaments found?

They arch over the psoas muscles

7

Where are the two lateral arcuate ligaments found?

They arch over the quadratus lumborum muscles

8

Which vessels supply the superior surface of the diaphragm?

The pericardiacophrenic and superior phrenic arteries (these come off the thoracic artery and thoracic aorta)

9

Which artery supplies the inferior surface of the diaphragm via the abdominal aorta?

The inferior phrenic artery

10

Which arteries supply the periphery of the diaphragm?

the musculophrenic artery via the internal thoracic artery

11

Where are the kidneys located?

Lateral to the vertebral column T12-L3

12

What encapsulates the kidneys?

perirenal fat and renal fascia

13

Kidneys ascend from where during development?

the pelvis

14

T/F the kidneys are in close proximity to the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava?

T

15

What are the two layers of the kidney?

Outer 1/3- renal cortex
Inner 2/3- renal medulla

16

Go draw a kidney. And the vasculature.

Okay

17

What receives the apex of the pyramids?

The renal papillae

18

Of the renal arteries, which side is longer?

The right renal artery is longer

19

T/F the left renal artery passes posterior to the IVC?

False, the right renal artery does

20

Which vessels supply the superior surface of the diaphragm?

The pericardiacophrenic and superior phrenic arteries (these come off the thoracic artery and thoracic aorta)

21

Which artery supplies the inferior surface of the diaphragm via the abdominal aorta?

The inferior phrenic artery

22

Which arteries supply the periphery of the diaphragm?

the musculophrenic artery via the internal thoracic artery

23

Where are the kidneys located?

Lateral to the vertebral column T12-L3

24

What encapsulates the kidneys?

perirenal fat and renal fascia

25

Kidneys ascend from where during development?

the pelvis

26

T/F the kidneys are in close proximity to the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava?

T

27

What are the two layers of the kidney?

Outer 1/3- renal cortex
Inner 2/3- renal medulla

28

Go draw a kidney. And the vasculature.

Okay

29

What receives the apex of the pyramids?

The renal papillae

30

Of the renal arteries, which side is longer?

The right renal artery is longer

31

T/F the left renal artery passes posterior to the IVC?

False, the right renal artery does

32

Are renal veins or arteries more anterior?

The renal veins

33

Which renal vein is longer, right or left?

Left and it passes anterior to the aorta

34

Draw the path of the ureters

You got it

35

Where are the 4 sources from which the ureter arteries arise?

1. Renal arteries
2. Testicular/ovarian arteries
3. Abdominal aorta
4. Internal iliac artery (from pelvic cavity)

36

Kidney stones (calculi) form in the kidney and can pass through the ureters into where?

The bladder

37

T/F calculi cause referred pain?
T/F the region of referred pain changes with the level of obstruction

True and true

38

What forces calculi down the ureter?

Waves of contraction

39

Where is the subcostal nerve found?

1 cm inferior to the 12th rib (T12)

40

What is the difference in shape between the two sides of adrenal glands?

The right adrenal gland is more triangular and the left adrenal gland is more semilunar

41

What surrounds the adrenal gland?

Fibrous capsule

42

Which part of the adrenal gland produces the adrenal steroids?

The adrenal cortex

43

What is the job of the adrenal medulla?

It acts as the sympathetic ganglion

44

T/F the adrenal glands are richly vascularized due to endocrine function?

True

45

What are the three sources for the suprarenal arteries?

1. The inferior phrenic
2. Abdominal
3. Renal

46

What are the 6 posterior abdominal wall muscles?

1. Transversus abdominus
2. Quadratus lumborum
3. Psoas major
4. Iliacus
5. Psoas minor
6. Diaphragm
I'd draw this one out if I were you

47

How many pairs of lumbar arteries are there?

4

48

The lumbar arteries are branches of what?

The abdominal aorta

49

Where does the abdominal aorta bifurcate into the iliac arteries?

L4, level of the umbilicus

50

The nerves of the posterior wall come from which rami?

Ventral rami T12-L4

51

Where is the subcostal nerve found?

1 cm inferior to the 12th rib

52

What does the subcostal nerve supply- sensory and motor?

Sensory to anterior/lateral abdominal wall
Motor to EO, IO, TA, pyramidalis, RA, QL

53

What does the iliohypogastric nerve supply?

The skin of the suprapubic region

54

What does the ilioinguinal nerve supply?

It runs through the inguinal canal to supply it

55

Both the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves supply what?

Abdominal muscles

56

T/F the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves can arise from a common trunk?

True

57

What does the genitofemoral nerve supply?

It supplies the skin inferior and medial to inguinal ligament and the cremaster muscle of the spermatic cord

58

The genitofemoral nerve splits into what?

The femoral branch and the genital branch

59

What muscle does the genitofemoral nerve pierce?

Psoas major

60

The genitofemoral nerve is at which spinal levels?

L1-L2

61

What is the path of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve?

It descends anterior to the iliacus muscle, passes deep to the inguinal ring

62

What does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve supply?

Supplies the anterior/lateral skin of the thigh

63

The femoral nerve comes from which spinal levels?

L2-L4

64

What is the path of the femoral nerve?

It runs between the iliacus and psoas major muscles, passes deep to the inguinal ligament and inferior to ASIS

65

What does the femoral nerve supply?

It supplies sensory and motor to the anterior thigh

66

What is the path of the obturator nerve?

It runs medial to the psoas major muscles and passes through the obturator foramen

67

What does the obturator nerve supply?

It supplies sensory and motor to the medial thigh

68

What is the lumbosacral trunk?

It is a large nerve trunk that provides general contributions to the lumbar and sacral plexuses