Diencephalon Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Diencephalon > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diencephalon Deck (30):
1

What are relay nuclei?

Nuclei receiving input from defined sensory or motor pathways that project to restricted, clearly delineated cortical regions.

2

What are association nuclei?

Thalamic nuclei with more widespread cortical connections. Involved with integration and correlation.

3

What are non-specific nuclei?

Thalamic nuclei receiving input from the brainstem reticular formation, such as the intralaminar nuclei, are designated as non-specific. Invovled in cortical activation.

4

What is the external medullary lamina?

surrounds the thalamus
consists of thalamocortical and corticothalamic tracts

5

In what lobe is the amygdale nucleus?

temporal lobe

6

What is the difference between the basal ganglia's effect on movement and the ventral anterior nucleus's affect on movement?

BG initiates and controls movement
VA plans complex movements

7

What is included in the diencephalon?

thalamus
hypothalamus
subthalamus
epithalamus

8

What ventricle does the diencephalon enclose?

Third ventricle

9

What is the epithalamus made up of?

Pineal body
habenular nucleus

10

What is the function of the pineal body in humans?

gonadal maturation
sleep/wake cycles
releases melatonin

11

What two projections have direct access to the cortex?

on the locus ceruleus, norandrenergic collection of neurons have direct access to the cortex

olfaction (CNI)

12

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

visceral control and maintenance of homeostasis
mediates limbic system activity

13

What divides the hypothalamus from the thalamus?

hypothalamic sulcus

14

What are the four major nuclear groups in the thalamus?

anterior nucleus
medial nucleus
lateral nuclear group
intralaminar nuclei

15

What is included in the media nucleus?

dorsomedial (mediodorsal, MD) nuclear group

16

What is included in the dorsal tier of the lateral nuclear group?

lateral dorsal nucleus
lateral posterior nucleus
pulvinar

17

What is included in the ventral tier of the lateral nuclear group?

ventral anterior nucleus
ventral lateral nucleus
ventral posterior nucleus (lateral and medial divisions)
lateral geniculate body
medial geniculate body

18

The pars reticulata has similarities in connectivity and histology to what part of the basal ganglia?

globus pallidus interna

19

By what route does the cerebellum affect UMNs?

Via ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus

20

Which thalamic nuclei are embedded in the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus?

intralaminar
centromedian

21

What causes thalamic syndrome?

ischemia or hemorrhage stroke involving posteromedial penetrating arteries involving VPL and VPM

22

What are Sx of thalmic syndrome? Contralateral or ipsilateral to lesion?

loss of proprioceptive sensation
sensory ataxia
problems with locomotion
inc pain sensitivity
contralateral

23

What is the function of the lateral nuclear group of the hypothalamus?

regulation of feeding behaviour

24

What syndrome results from interruption of sympathetic pathways from the paraventricular nucleus?

Horners syndrome

25

Where do the columns of the fornix end?

Mammillary bodies

26

What is the subthalamus involved in?

Motor control

27

Lesions in the subthalamic nucleus produce a severe motor disturbance known as

hemiballismus

28

QUIZ YOURSELF ON THE INPUTS/FUNCTIONS/OUTPUTS OF THE THALAMIC AND HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEI

See chart

29

What divides the thalamus into the anterior, medial and lateral nuclear groups?

Internal medullary lamina

30

What does the external medullary lamina consist of?

white matter consisting of thalamocortical and corticothalamic fibres