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Flashcards in Different educational achievement Deck (18):

What are the 5 stages of education

Pre school
Primary education
Secondary education
Further education (a-level)
Higher education (degree)


What does differential educational achievement refer to

The variation in educational attainment between students according to their social class background, gender and ethnicity


Who achieves between results in public examinations in general

Middle class backgrounds compared to working class backgrounds


What groups tend to perform better within education compared to others

Minority ethinic groups like Chinese, Indian and Irish students compared to other like Africans, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis


What gender traditionally got between results than others but when and how did this change

Boys got better results than girls but towards the end of the 1980s the gender gap in achievement began to narrow and girls were doing better than boys at gcse by the 2000s


What factors affect influences on educational achieving

Home factors
School factors
Government policies


What types of home factors are there that affect educational achievement

Parental values and expectation
Parents educational backgrounds
Economic circumstances
Cultural backgrounds


What do economic circumstances mean in home factors for educational achievement

Students from relatively well off backgrounds are more likely to have access to facilities to help them study at home


What types of school factors are there that influence educational achievement

School based resources
The school curriculum
Teacher expectations and labelling
Pupils cultures and school ethos
Institutional racism


What is the school curriculum seen as biased towards

White European cultures


How do teacher expectations affect students educational achievements

Some teachers have lower expectations for working class or minority ethinic groups so this may affect how much attention such teachers give to these students and this may demotivate students form the areas


What is labelling

Negative labelling of working class or black students can lead to self fulfilling prophecy’s
So students perform badly or as well as there teachers expect them to


What is a laddish culture and how does it affect achievement

It emphasises it’s uncool to work hard
This is an informal peer culture that may encourage anti-learning attitudes and affect the progress of pupils


What is school ethos

Refers to the character or culture of a school
Some schools have an academic ethos that promotes exam success and progression


What is institutional racism

An organisation fails to provide an appropriate service to people because of their ethnic culture or colour
It’s an unintended consequence of the way institutions like schools are organised


What are some government policies that have had influences on educational achievement

The specialist schools programme
Schools admission policies
Marketisation competition and league tables
Equal opportunities policies and legalisations


How is parental choice and competition affect on educational achievement

The parent choice and competition of schools to raise standards has made low more difficult for urban schools that have an intake of working class or minority ethnic students


What were the equal opportunities policies and legislation

They were anti-discrimination acts that made it illegal for schools to discriminate on the basis of gender or ethnicity