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Flashcards in Differential Diagnosis Deck (21)
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1
Q

Definitions of Psychopathology

A

(Maddux & Winstead 2008)

  • Statistically different/infrequent
  • Maladaptive behavior
  • Distress and Disability
  • Social Deviance
  • Harmful dysfunction
  • DSM
2
Q

DSM Definition of Mental Disorder

A

(DSM-5 2013)

  • Clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior
  • Dysfunction in psychological, biological, or developmental processes
  • Usually associated with significant distress or disability
  • Expected or culturally approved response to stress, socially deviant behavior, conflicts between individual and society NOT a disorder
3
Q

Cultural definitions of pathology

A

(Nevid 1994)

-Definitions are different in various cultures

4
Q

Basic Criteria for PD (DSM)

A

(DSM-5 2013)

  • Enduring pattern of inner experience that deviates from culture (cognition, affect, interpersonal, impulse control)
  • enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across range of situations
  • enduring pattern leads to distress or impairment in social, work, or other areas
  • enduring pattern is stable and of long duration beginning in adolescence or adulthood
  • not better explained by another disorder
  • not attributable to substance use or medical condition
5
Q

Personality Clusters in DSM

A

(DSM-5 2013)
Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric, including Paranoid, Schizoid and Schizotypal
Cluster B: Dramatic/Emotional, including Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Cluster C: Anxious, including Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive compulsive

6
Q

Summary of pathology causes in Drive Model

A

(Pine 1990)
-Overwhelming drives or weak defenses cause illness
-Compromise formation is based on drive vs. defense and can cause neurotic symptoms
-Failure of compromise formation leads to neurosis
Guilt through internalized authority figures and aggressive drives causes neurosis

7
Q

Cognitive model of pathology

A
  • maladaptive/unrealistic beliefs can negatively impact behavior and emotions
  • cognition and behaviors are the problem, not the cause of symptoms
  • cognitions are learned and genetic, and continued through reinforcement
8
Q

Difference between mood and affect

A

(Maddux & Winstead, 2008)
Mood is stable, pervasive, sustained emotion which colors experiences and perceptions
Affect is the fluctuating change in emotion moment to moment, a pattern of observable behaviors

9
Q

Psychodynamic conceptualization of depression

A

Two types:
Introjective (Freud 1917) concerned with securing a positive self
Anaclitic (Spitz 1945) concerned with obtaining and maintaining close relationships

10
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Depressive Episode

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)

  • Depressed mood or anhedonia >2 weeks must be present
  • 4 other symptoms from I’M SAD, WEPT:
  • Inadequate self-esteem
  • Mood, depressed
  • Sleep
  • Anhedonia
  • Death thoughts/suicidal
  • Weight change
  • Energy loss/fatigue
  • Psychomotor
  • Thinking/concentration or indecisiveness
11
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Persistent Depressive Disorder

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)

  • Depressed mood >2 years
  • Two or more symptoms of a depressive episode
  • No remission in >2 months
12
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

A

(DMS-5, APA 2013)

  • severe temper
  • inconsistent for developmental level
  • outbursts averaging 3+ times per week
  • mood is persistently irritable/angry
  • Present in at least 2 settings (home, school, or peers)
  • diagnosis made between age 6 and 18
  • onset before age 10
13
Q

Prevalence rates for depressive disorders

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)

  • 20-25% lifetime prevalence for women. 9-13% for men
  • Age of first episode usually 15-29 years old
14
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)

  • excessive anxiety and worry for >6 months about a number of things
  • difficult to control the worry
  • three or more from Indiana (Jones) Fights Monsters, Rattlesnakes, Communists, and Swastikas:
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle tension
  • Restlessness
  • Concentration/mind blank
  • Sleep disturbance
15
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Panic Disorder

A
(DSM-5, APA 2013)
-four or more from Puh Panic Study Skills A B CCC DD FF
-Palpitations
-Paresthesias
-Sweating
-Shaking or trembling
-Abdominal distress
-Breath is short
-Choking feeling
-Chest pain
-Chills or hot flushes
-Dizzy
-Derealization/depersonalization
-Fear of losing control
-Fear of dying
Also with worry about additional attacks and/or significant behavior change
16
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Social Anxiety Disorder

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)

  • fear of social situations
  • Fear that they will be negatively evaluated
  • the situation almost always provokes fear
  • The situation is avoided or endured with intense fear
  • Fear is out of proportion for actual threat
  • lasting >6 months
17
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Agoraphobia

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)

  • fear in 2 of the following:
  • using public transit
  • being in open spaces
  • being in closed spaces
  • standing in line or crowd
  • being outside the home alone
  • avoidance of situation due to fear that escape would be difficult or help would not be available
  • situation almost always provokes fear
  • active avoidance or requires the presence of a companion, or endured with great fear
  • out of proportion to the actual danger
  • lasting >6 months
18
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

A
(DSM-5, APA 2013)
Obsessions (RISE)
-recognition of thoughts (not thought insertion)
-Intrusive and inappropriate
-Suppression attempts
-excessive beyond worries about life
Compulsions (R&R)
-repetitive behaviors or mental acts they feel driven to perform
-Reducing distress is the goal

In addition, the person recognizes the behavior as unreasonable and is causes marked distress and is time consuming

19
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

A
(DSM-5, APA 2013)
TIA CMA
-Traumatic event
-Intrusive symptoms
-Avoidance
-Cognition or Mood (2)
-Arousal changes (2)
> 1 month
20
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Stress Disorder

A
(DSM-5, APA 2013)
-traumatic event
9 or more symptoms from (I MAAD) 
-Intrusive symptoms
-Mood
-Avoidance
-Arousal
-Dissociation
3 days to 1 month
21
Q

Diagnostic Criteria for Manic Episode

A

(DSM-5, APA 2013)
FART GAS

Flight of ideas
Attention easily drawn
Risky activities
Talkative
Grandiosity
Activity, goal directed
Sleep, decreased

lasting at least a week