Differentiation and Stem Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Differentiation and Stem Cells Deck (21):

What is differentiation?

When unspecialised cells become specialised in structure and biochemical properties, making them perfectly adapted for carrying out a particular function.


What are stem cells?

Unspecialised cells that have the ability to reproduce and differentiate into a diverse range of specialised cells.


What are embryonic stem cells?

They can differentiate into all the cells types that make up an organism. They are pluripotent


Where are embryonic cells found?

In a blastocyst.


What are adult tissue cells?

They are involved in the growth, repair and renewal of the cells found in that tissue. They are multipotent.


What are induced pluripotent stem cells?

Adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell like state.


What are somatic cells?

Produced by cellular differentiation where a cell develops more specialised functions by expressing the specific genes needed for each cell type. They form the different types of body tissue


What are germline cells?

Include the sex cells or gametes and the cells that produce the gametes called gamete mother cells.


How can germline cells divide?

My meiosis to produce gametes or by mitosis to produce more diploid cells.


When will mutations be passed on?

Mutations in germline cells are passed onto offspring. Example cystic fibrosis.


What information does stem cell research provide?

Information on how cells processes such as cell growth, differentiation and gene regulation work.


What are stem cells used for?

Model cells to study how diseases develop or for drug testing.


What are the therapeutic uses for stem cells?

Treatment of diseased such as leukaemia, skin grafts for burns and cornea repair.


What are cancer cells?

Cells that divide excessively to produce a mass of abnormal cells (a tumour) that do not respond to regulatory signals and may fail to attach to each other.


How does a secondary tumour form?

When cancer cells lose the molecules on their surface that would normally had them in place and can therefore be detached from their neighbours causing the cells to spread.


What does benign mean?

Slow growing, capsulated, non-invasive (do not metastasize), well differentiated, Suffix "oma" e.g. fibroma


What does Malignant mean?

Fast growing, non- capsulated, invasive and infiltrate, metasize, poorly differentiated, Suffix "carcinoma" or "sarcoma".


Epithelial tissue

Provides the body's surface- also lines cavities and turbular structures. Goblet, ciliated, Squamish


Connective tissue

Bone, cartilage, blood, fat droplets. Lots of fluid around connective tissues. Plasma and matrix


Muscle tissue

Skeletal- Move skeleton.
Cardiac- Heart.
Smooth- Blood vessels and intestine.


Nervous tissue

Motor, sensory and relay neurones. Glial cells support and maintain neurones.