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Anatomy > Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestion Deck (37):
1

Function

1. Ingestion. 2. Motility 3. Secretion 4. Digestion 5. Absorption 6. Elimination of undigested materials.

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Layers of alimentary canal

1. Mucosa 2. Sub mucosa 3. Muscularis 4. Serosa or aventitia

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Mucosa

Epithelium: nonkeratinized stratified epithelium or simple columnar.
Lamina proprietary: loose CT ( areolar) that contain blood vessels.
Muscularis mucosa

4

Submucosa

Areolar ct with blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels that serve organ.

5

Muscularis

Smooth muscles. Inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer

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Serosa

Double layer serous membrane, surrounds stomach, small intestines, large intestines

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Aventitia

Fibrous ct around mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and rectum.

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Mesentary

Ct sheaths that hold stomach and intestines in place but allows for movement during digestion

9

Receptors

Mechanorectors: detect stretch. Chemoreceptors: detect chemical concentrations

10

Long loop reflexes

Sensory info from receptors to CNS and motor output through facial, glossophyringeal or vagus nerves.

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Short loop reflexes

Carried out by enteric nervous system, one organ will stimulate secretion or motility of another organ based on info from receptors

12

Oral cavity

Mucosa is NK SSE. Aventitia contains intrinsic salivary glands which keep mouth wet.

13

Oral cavity accessory organs

Teeth, tongue extrinsic salivary glands

14

Names off extrinsic salivary glands

Sublingual, submandibular, and parotid salivary

15

Pharynx

Nasopharynx, ciliates pseudo stratified comlumnar.
Laryngo or oropharynx NK SSE

End at superior esophageal sphincter

16

Esophagus

Muscular funnel from superior to inferior esophageal sphincter .
Mucosa: NK Stratified SE
Sub mucosa. Contains elastic fibers
Muscular is contains skeletal muscles

17

Stomach

Mucosa: simple squamous epithelium. Folds with submucosa to for, gastric ruggae or pits,
Muscular is has inner oblique layer.
Serosa

18

Small intestines

Duodenum, jejunun, ileum
Mucosa: simple columnar cells and micro ills
Muscularis is shorter that other 2 layers, forming circular folds.
Serosa

19

Large intestines

Cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colons, rectum and anal canal.
Mucosa: simple columnar epithelium
Serosa

20

Liver

Right, left, caudate, quadrate lobes

21

Hepatic triad

Hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, bile ductule

22

Blood through liver

Nutrient rich (O2 poor) blood enters lobule through branches of hepatic portal vein and mix with blood from hepatic artery. Blood mixes ands drains into hepatic veins that drain into IVC.

Hepatocyte clean blood and produce bile which drain into bile ductile, drain into left and right hepatic ducts to the commons hepatic ducts to custic ducts, to the gallbladder for storage,

23

Gallbladder

3 tunics, mucosa, muscularis and serosa.

24

Pancreas

Secretes amylase, pancreatic lipase, proteases,nuclease.

25

Oral cavity motility

Voluntary phase of swallowing, tongue manipulates food, mixes with saliva and pushes along hard palate to form bolts, tongue pushes bolus back towards soft palate and oropharynx, this stimulates tactile receptors to move to next phase of swallowing,

26

Oral cavity secretion

Saliva. Salivary amylase and lingual lipase

27

Oral cavity digestion

Mechanical: chewing
Chemical: salivary amylase for carbs

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Oral cavity absorption

None

29

Pharynx motility

Pharyngeal phase of swallowing, soft palate and uvula raise and block the nasopharyngeal. Epiglottis covers larynx. Superior esophageal sphincter relaxes.

30

Pharyn secretion

Mucus

31

Pharynx digestion

None new

32

Pharynx absorption

None

33

Esophagus Mobility

esophageal phase. bolus pushed by peristaltic waves down esophagus. Peristalsis relaxes inferior esophageal sphincter and bolus enters stomach

34

Esophagus Secretion

mucus

35

Esophagus digestion

none

36

esophagus absorption

none

37

Stomach motility

1. mixing and churning: forceful contractions that mix bolus and gastric juice