Flashcards in Digestion Deck (100):
What is the alimentary canal and what makes it up?
called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or gut, the alimentary canal (aliment- = “to nourish”) is a one-way tube. Main function of the alimentary organs is to nourish the body
- large intestine
What is the function of accessory organs of digestion?
They aid in the breakdown of digestion
ex: teeth and tongue begin mechanical digestion
In order from inside to outside what are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal histology wise? (MSMS)
____is a layer of connective tissue analogous to the dermis but in the digestive tract (alimentary canal)
___is found in the mucosa, This thin layer of smooth muscle is in a constant state of tension, pulling the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine into undulating folds. These folds dramatically increase the surface area available for digestion and absorption.
What is the function of the double layer of the muscularis found in the small intestine?
-promote mechanical digestion
-expose more of the food to digestive chemicals
-move the food along the canal
Where in the body has a third layer of muscle in the muscularis? Why does it have it and what is the muscle?
- oblique muscle helps in the churning function of the stomach
The ___ is the layer of the alimentary canal that is superficial to the muscularis, These tissues serve to hold the alimentary canal in place near the ventral surface of the vertebral column.
In the esophagus, mouth and pharynx it is called the___ in the abdominal cavity portion of the alimentary canal it is called the___
What is the function and location of the myenteric plexus?
The myenteric plexus lies in the muscularis layer of the alimentary canal and is responsible for motility, especially the rhythm and force of the contractions of the muscularis.
What is the function and location of the submucosal plexus?
The submucosal plexus lies in the submucosal layer and is responsible for regulating digestive secretions and reacting to the presence of food
What are the two functions of blood vessels in the digestive system?
-They transport the protein and carbohydrate nutrients absorbed by mucosal cells after food is digested in the lumen.
-supply the organs of the alimentary canal with the nutrients and oxygen needed to drive their cellular processes.
Where does blood from the celiac trunk supply?
the liver, stomach, and duodenum
Where does blood from the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply?
small and large intestine
When does blood from the alimentary viscera circulate back to the heart?
The veins that collect nutrient-rich blood from the small intestine (where most absorption occurs) empty into the hepatic portal system. This venous network takes the blood into the liver where the nutrients are either processed or stored for later use.
The digestive organs of the abdomen are held in place by the___
Apron-like structure that lies superficial to the small intestine and transverse colon; a site of fat deposition in people who are overweight
Anchors the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and inferior border of the diaphragm
Suspends the stomach from the inferior border of the liver; provides a pathway for structures connecting to the liver
Vertical band of tissue anterior to the lumbar vertebrae and anchoring all of the small intestine except the initial portion (the duodenum)
Attaches two portions of the large intestine (the transverse and sigmoid colon) to the posterior abdominal wall
__passage of digested products from the intestinal lumen through mucosal cells and into the bloodstream or lacteals`
enzymatic breakdown of food
soupy liquid created when food is mixed with digestive juices
elimination of undigested substances from the body in the form of feces
taking food into the GI tract through the mouth
chewing, mixing, and segmentation that prepares food for chemical digestion
muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food through the GI tract
voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis that moves food through the digestive tract
alternating contractions and relaxations of non-adjacent segments of the intestine that move food forward and backward, breaking it apart and mixing it with digestive juices
mass of chewed food
bone-like tissue covering the root of a tooth
portion of tooth visible superior to the gum line
pointed tooth used for tearing and shredding food
one of 20 “baby teeth”
three-stage process of swallowing
bone-like tissue immediately deep to the enamel of the crown or cementum of the root of a tooth
covering of the dentin of the crown of a tooth
muscular tube that runs from the pharynx to the stomach
opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
midline, chisel-shaped tooth used for cutting into food
midline mucous membrane fold that attaches the inner surface of the lips to the gums
part of the pharynx that functions in respiration and digestion
mucous membrane fold that attaches the bottom of the tongue to the floor of the mouth
digestive enzyme from glands in the tongue that acts on triglycerides
smooth muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the esophagus to the stomach
lower esophageeal sphincter
tooth used for crushing and grinding food
part of the mouth bounded externally by the cheeks and lips, and internally by the gums and teeth
part of the pharynx continuous with the oral cavity that functions in respiration and digestion
muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the base of the tongue
muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the side of the pharynx
one of a pair of major salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears
transitional tooth used for mastication, crushing, and grinding food
deepest portion of a tooth, containing nerve endings and blood vessels
portion of a tooth embedded in the alveolar processes beneath the gum line
posterior region of the bottom portion of the nasal cavity that consists of skeletal muscle
one of a pair of major salivary glands located beneath the tongue
one of a pair of major salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth
accessory digestive organ of the mouth, the bulk of which is composed of skeletal muscle
skeletal muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the pharynx to the esophagus
upper esophageal sphincter
initial phase of deglutition, in which the bolus moves from the mouth to the oropharynx
mid-portion of the stomach
part of the stomach surrounding the cardiac orifice (esophageal hiatus)
initial phase of gastric secretion that occurs before food enters the stomach
gastric gland cell that secretes pepsinogen
gastric gland cell that releases hormones
dome-shaped region of the stomach above and to the left of the cardia
gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cell
process by which mixing waves gradually cause the release of chyme into the duodenum
gland in the stomach mucosal epithelium that produces gastric juice
phase of gastric secretion that begins when food enters the stomach
narrow channel formed by the epithelial lining of the stomach mucosa
peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid and gut motility
digestive acid secreted by parietal cells in the stomach
glycoprotein required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
phase of gastric secretion that begins when chyme enters the intestine
unique type of peristalsis that occurs in the stomach
protective barrier that prevents gastric juice from destroying the stomach itself
gastric gland cell that secretes a uniquely acidic mucus
mucous neck cel
gastric gland cell that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
fold of alimentary canal mucosa and submucosa in the empty stomach and other organs
final segment of the large intestine
long fold of mucosa in the anal canal
recess between anal columns
(vermiform appendix) coiled tube attached to the cecum
first region of the colon
fuzzy appearance of the small intestinal mucosa created by microvilli
pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine
deep fold in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine
part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
part of the colon between the transverse colon and the sigmoid colon
first part of the small intestine, which starts at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the jejunum
small sac of fat-filled visceral peritoneum attached to teniae coli
voluntary skeletal muscle sphincter in the anal canal
external anal sphincter
propulsive movement in the colon activated by the presence of food in the stomach
long reflex that increases the strength of segmentation in the ileum