Digestion Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestion Deck (100):
1

What is the alimentary canal and what makes it up?

called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or gut, the alimentary canal (aliment- = “to nourish”) is a one-way tube. Main function of the alimentary organs is to nourish the body

Organs include:
- pharynx
-esophagus
-stomach
-small intestine
- large intestine

2

What is the function of accessory organs of digestion?

They aid in the breakdown of digestion
ex: teeth and tongue begin mechanical digestion
ex:

3

In order from inside to outside what are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal histology wise? (MSMS)

- mucosa
-submucosa
-muscularis
-serosa

4

____is a layer of connective tissue analogous to the dermis but in the digestive tract (alimentary canal)

lamina propria

5

___is found in the mucosa, This thin layer of smooth muscle is in a constant state of tension, pulling the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine into undulating folds. These folds dramatically increase the surface area available for digestion and absorption.

muscularis mucosa

6

What is the function of the double layer of the muscularis found in the small intestine?

-promote mechanical digestion
-expose more of the food to digestive chemicals
-move the food along the canal

7

Where in the body has a third layer of muscle in the muscularis? Why does it have it and what is the muscle?

- stomach
- oblique muscle helps in the churning function of the stomach

8

The ___ is the layer of the alimentary canal that is superficial to the muscularis, These tissues serve to hold the alimentary canal in place near the ventral surface of the vertebral column.

serosa

9

In the esophagus, mouth and pharynx it is called the___ in the abdominal cavity portion of the alimentary canal it is called the___

adventitia, serosa

10

What is the function and location of the myenteric plexus?

The myenteric plexus lies in the muscularis layer of the alimentary canal and is responsible for motility, especially the rhythm and force of the contractions of the muscularis.

11

What is the function and location of the submucosal plexus?

The submucosal plexus lies in the submucosal layer and is responsible for regulating digestive secretions and reacting to the presence of food

12

What are the two functions of blood vessels in the digestive system?

-They transport the protein and carbohydrate nutrients absorbed by mucosal cells after food is digested in the lumen.
-supply the organs of the alimentary canal with the nutrients and oxygen needed to drive their cellular processes.

13

Where does blood from the celiac trunk supply?

the liver, stomach, and duodenum

14

Where does blood from the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply?

small and large intestine

15

When does blood from the alimentary viscera circulate back to the heart?

The veins that collect nutrient-rich blood from the small intestine (where most absorption occurs) empty into the hepatic portal system. This venous network takes the blood into the liver where the nutrients are either processed or stored for later use.

16

The digestive organs of the abdomen are held in place by the___

peritoneum

17

Apron-like structure that lies superficial to the small intestine and transverse colon; a site of fat deposition in people who are overweight

Greater omentum

18

Anchors the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and inferior border of the diaphragm

Falciform ligament

19

Suspends the stomach from the inferior border of the liver; provides a pathway for structures connecting to the liver

lesser omentum

20

Vertical band of tissue anterior to the lumbar vertebrae and anchoring all of the small intestine except the initial portion (the duodenum)

Mesentary

21

Attaches two portions of the large intestine (the transverse and sigmoid colon) to the posterior abdominal wall

Mesocolon

22

__passage of digested products from the intestinal lumen through mucosal cells and into the bloodstream or lacteals`

absorption

23

enzymatic breakdown of food

chemical digestion

24

soupy liquid created when food is mixed with digestive juices

chyme

25

elimination of undigested substances from the body in the form of feces

defecation

26

taking food into the GI tract through the mouth

Ingestion

27

chewing

mastication

28

chewing, mixing, and segmentation that prepares food for chemical digestion

mechanical digestion

29

muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food through the GI tract

peristalsis

30

voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis that moves food through the digestive tract

propulsion

31

alternating contractions and relaxations of non-adjacent segments of the intestine that move food forward and backward, breaking it apart and mixing it with digestive juices

segmentation

32

mass of chewed food

bolus

33

bone-like tissue covering the root of a tooth

cementum

34

portion of tooth visible superior to the gum line

crown

35

pointed tooth used for tearing and shredding food

cuspid

36

one of 20 “baby teeth”

deciduous tooth

37

three-stage process of swallowing

deglutition

38

tooth

dens

39

bone-like tissue immediately deep to the enamel of the crown or cementum of the root of a tooth

dentin

40

covering of the dentin of the crown of a tooth

enamel

41

muscular tube that runs from the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

42

opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx

fauces

43

midline, chisel-shaped tooth used for cutting into food

incisor

44

midline mucous membrane fold that attaches the inner surface of the lips to the gums

labial frenulum

45

part of the pharynx that functions in respiration and digestion

larygnopharynx

46

mucous membrane fold that attaches the bottom of the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual frenulum

47

digestive enzyme from glands in the tongue that acts on triglycerides

lingual lipase

48

smooth muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the esophagus to the stomach

lower esophageeal sphincter

49

tooth used for crushing and grinding food

molar

50

part of the mouth bounded externally by the cheeks and lips, and internally by the gums and teeth

oral vestibule

51

part of the pharynx continuous with the oral cavity that functions in respiration and digestion

oropharynx

52

muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the base of the tongue

palatoglossal arch

53

muscular fold that extends from the lateral side of the soft palate to the side of the pharynx

palatopharyngeal arch

54

one of a pair of major salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears

parotid gland

55

throat

pharynx

56

transitional tooth used for mastication, crushing, and grinding food

premolar

57

deepest portion of a tooth, containing nerve endings and blood vessels

pulp cavity

58

portion of a tooth embedded in the alveolar processes beneath the gum line

root

59

posterior region of the bottom portion of the nasal cavity that consists of skeletal muscle

soft palate

60

one of a pair of major salivary glands located beneath the tongue

sublingual gland

61

one of a pair of major salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth

submandibular gland

62

accessory digestive organ of the mouth, the bulk of which is composed of skeletal muscle

tonguee

63

skeletal muscle sphincter that regulates food movement from the pharynx to the esophagus

upper esophageal sphincter

64

initial phase of deglutition, in which the bolus moves from the mouth to the oropharynx

voluntary phase

65

mid-portion of the stomach

body

66

part of the stomach surrounding the cardiac orifice (esophageal hiatus)

cardia

67

initial phase of gastric secretion that occurs before food enters the stomach

cephalic phase

68

gastric gland cell that secretes pepsinogen

chief cell

69

gastric gland cell that releases hormones

enteroendocrine cells

70

dome-shaped region of the stomach above and to the left of the cardia

fundus

71

gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cell

G cell

72

process by which mixing waves gradually cause the release of chyme into the duodenum

gastric emptying

73

gland in the stomach mucosal epithelium that produces gastric juice

Gastric gland

74

phase of gastric secretion that begins when food enters the stomach

gastric phase

75

narrow channel formed by the epithelial lining of the stomach mucosa

gastric pit

76

peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid and gut motility

Gastrin

77

digestive acid secreted by parietal cells in the stomach

hydrochloric acid

78

glycoprotein required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine

intrinsic factor

79

phase of gastric secretion that begins when chyme enters the intestine

intestinal phase

80

unique type of peristalsis that occurs in the stomach

mixing wave

81

protective barrier that prevents gastric juice from destroying the stomach itself

mucosal barrier

82

gastric gland cell that secretes a uniquely acidic mucus

mucous neck cel

83

gastric gland cell that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor

parietal cells

84

fold of alimentary canal mucosa and submucosa in the empty stomach and other organs

ruga

85

final segment of the large intestine

anal canal

86

long fold of mucosa in the anal canal

anal column

87

recess between anal columns

anal sinus

88

(vermiform appendix) coiled tube attached to the cecum

appendix

89

first region of the colon

ascending colon

90

fuzzy appearance of the small intestinal mucosa created by microvilli

bursh border

91

pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine

cecum

92

deep fold in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine

circular fold

93

part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum

colon

94

part of the colon between the transverse colon and the sigmoid colon

descending colon

95

first part of the small intestine, which starts at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the jejunum

duodenum

96

small sac of fat-filled visceral peritoneum attached to teniae coli

epiploic appendages

97

voluntary skeletal muscle sphincter in the anal canal

external anal sphincter

98

propulsive movement in the colon activated by the presence of food in the stomach

gastrocolic reflex

99

long reflex that increases the strength of segmentation in the ileum

gastroileal reflex

100

small pouch in the colon created by tonic contractions of teniae coli

haustrum