Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Annatomy > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (74):
1

Crown

Above gumline

2

Neck

Is in the gumline

3

Root

Is below the gumline

4

Incisors

Eight of them acts a chisels in cutting food.

5

Canines (cuspids)

4 cone shaped teeth with a pointed tip to tear food

6

Primolars (bicupids)

8 flattened teeth to chrush and grind food

7

Molars

12 (4 wisdom) to crush and grind food

8

Three layers of teeth

Enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity

9

Enamel

Outermost layer that covers the crown, made of the hardest material in the body called calcium phosphate

10

Dentin

Inner tooth made of bone similar tissue. Surrounds pulp cavity

11

Pulp cavity

Soft part of tooth contains living cells. Blood vessels and nerves come throught root canals at the base of the tooth

12

3 pairs of salvary gland in the mouth

Partoid, submandibular, and sublingual

13

Functions of saliva

Dissolves chemicals in food, moisens food for swallowing, contains amylase for carbohydrate digestion

14

Enzymes

Act as a catalyst in chemical reactions in the body

15

Mechanical digestion

Through mastication or chewing food with teeth

16

Chemical digestion

When salvary enzymes catalyzes the breakdown of carbohydrates into maltose

17

Bolus

The round mass that chewed food forms into with the help of the tounge

18

Pharynx

Tubular passageway made of muscle and mucus membrane part of both the respiratory and digestive system

19

Esophagus

Located in the thoracic cavity. Extends from the throat to the stomach. Its lines with mucus membrane and is the passageway for food.

20

Peristalis

Rythmical wave of smooth muscle contractions moving food along

21

Mucus

Lubracant for food movement

22

Stomach

Left side of abdominal cavity. Its a j shaped muscular pouch that can stretch

23

Full means the stomach is

Distended

24

Rugae

Internal folds

25

What do rugae do

Increase surface area for digestion and allow epansion

26

Simple columnar epithelium

Innermost lining of the stomach. Made of 3 divisions

27

Fundus

Superior bulge in stomach

28

Body

Main and largest part

29

Pyloric

Inferior region, closest to small intestine

30

Omentum

Ligaments that support the stomach

31

Sphincters

Ring like muscles

32

Cardiac

Between esophagus and stomach

33

Pyloric

Between stomach and duodenum of small intestine

34

Cardiac sphincer

Allows food into the stomach but not out (eceptions are vomiting heartburn and acid reflex)

35

Chyme

When food changes from a solid to a semifluid. Remains in stomach for 3-4 hours

36

3 gastric juices

Mucus, hydrocloric acid, enzymes

37

Pepsinogen

Inactive enzym, when HCL activates

38

Pepsin

Activated by HCL, broken down turns into peptides

39

Mucin(mucus)

Protects stomach lining from being digested

40

Intrinsic factor

Needed for ansorbtion of vitimin B12

41

Hydrocloric acid

An acid that maintains PH in stomach. Activates pepsin. Helps absorb ions and destroy bacteria.

42

Cephalic phase

Production of gastric juice in response to thought, sight, taste, or smell of food.

43

Gastric phase

Production in response to presence of food in the stomach

44

Gastrin

Causes stomach glands to produce gastric juices

45

Pyloric sphincter

Releases small amounts of chyme at a time from the stomach. Connects stomach to large intestine

46

Small intestine

In abdominal cavity about 22 feet. Coiled into loops

47

Parts of small intestine

Duodenum, jejunum, illeum

48

Function of small intestine

Stores food, secretes digestion juices 90% nutrients are absorbed (carbs, protiens. And fats)

49

Duodnem

Most of actual digestion occurs

50

Exocrine system (liver and gall bladder)

Secretes bile into ducts to deliver to the duodenum of the small intestine

51

Bile

Emulsifies(mechanically breaks down) for digestion bile from gall bladder

52

Gallbladder

Stores bile produced by liver. Triggered by hormone CCK

53

Pancreas

Behind the stomach. Exocrine and endocrine gland (most important juice)

54

Pancreatic juice

Digests 3 kinds of food.

55

Bicarbonate

Nuetralizes stomach acid

56

Starch turns to

Maltos

57

Lipids turn to

Fatty acids

58

Protiens turn to

Amino acids

59

Liver

Releases bile

60

Peptidase

Breaks down protiens into simplest forms

61

Peptises + peptidase enzyme=

Amino acids

62

Maltase

Breaks down carbs and starchs into simplest form

63

Peristalsis

Food moves through small intestine

64

Absorption

Occurs in jejunum and ileum (super surface area)

65

Large intestine

5 feet long, forms lower part of digestive tract

66

Ileocecal valve

Undigestive and unabsorbed food enters through here

67

Cecum

Beginning of large intestine

68

Large intestine

No digestive enzymes, bacteria lives here and produces vitimins amd gases. Water and vitimins are absorbed, eliminated and feces

69

How many times a day doe peristalsis occur

3-4 times a day

70

Defecation reflex

Caused by the buildup of feces (takes 3-5 days)

71

Carbs

Carbs--> maltos--> glucose

72

Protiens

Protiends--> peptides --> amino acid

73

Fats

Fats --> fatty acids

74

Teeth

Initiate physical (mechanical) breakdown of food