Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology II > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (113):
1

The parasympathetic nervous system will

Increases activities of the digestive system. Also increases blood pressure.

2

The Sympathetic nervous system will inhibit (prevent)

certain digestive actions. Fight or flight response.

3

Mastication means

Chewing

4

Another word for voicebox?

Larynx

5

Function of the soft palate during digestion process?

Soft palate blocks the upper pharynx to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity.

6

The function of the epiglottis during digestion process?

Prevent food entry into the respiratory system.

7

Bolus means

A swallowed ball of food.

8

Peristalsis is the intestinal

Contractions that move food through the digestive tract

9

The surface area of the stomach is enhanced by the presence of folds called _____?

Rugae

10

What is chyme?

A mass of partially digested food

11

What is bile?

The fluid that aids digestion. Secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

12

What is bile salt good for?

Break fat globules into droplets. This process is called emulsification.

13

What is palate?

Roof of mouth

14

Which intestinal layer accounts for the action of the peristaltic waves?

Muscularis

15

The alimentary tube is around _____ meters long?

9 meters

16

The _____ nervous system division usually stimulates and promotes digestion

Parasympathetic

17

Gastric enzymes are secreted by

Chief cells

18

Proteins are digested or broken down by the _____ in the stomach

Pepsin

19

Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one?
- Secretion of somatostatin
- Inhibition of somatostatin
- Secretion of gastrin
- Promotes histamine

Secretion of somatostatin

20

Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches _____

1.5

21

The alkaline tide occurs when _____ is secreted into the blood

Bicarbonate ions

22

The _____ duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder

Cystic

23

The common bile duct is formed by the merger of the hepatic and _____ ducts

Cystic

24

The ampulla of Vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the _____ duct

Pancreatic

25

Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a _____ condition

Cholelithiasis

26

Bile facilitates digestion by causing the _____ of fats

Emulsification (break down of fats)

27

Bile salts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called _____ that facilitate absorption

Micelles

28

Amylase could be found in all of these areas except which one?

Stomach

29

Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the _____

Jejunum

30

Fatty acids and glycerol are released when _____ are broken down by liver or muscle cells

Chylomicrons

31

Which of the following is NOT readily absorbed in the small intestine?

Mg2+

32

The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering the _____

Large intestine

33

The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the _____

Tongue

34

The following are true of the tongue except which one?

Attaches to temporal bone

35

Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the sites of inflammation?

Palatine tonsils

36

The term wisdom tooth refers to the _____ tooth

Third molar

37

The portion of a tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the _____

Root

38

Which part of a tooth most closely resembles bone tissue?

Dentin

39

Which muscles constrict to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing?

Inferior constrictor

40

A hiatal hernia is a weakness in the _____ muscle, which allows a portion of the digestive tract to enter the thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

41

The _____ part of the stomach is the area connected to the esophagus

Cardiac

42

The _____ prevents food from entering the small intestine

Pyloric valve

43

What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release?

Lipids

44

What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum?

Sphincter of Oddi

45

Which of the following triggers the formation of the others?

Enterokinase

46

Proteins are split by all of the following pancreatic factors except which one?
- Zymogen
- Chymotrypsin
- Trypsin
- Carboxypeptidase

Zymogen

47

Pancreatitis is mainly the result of _____ activity

Trypsin

48

Which of the following are NOT active in the duodenum?

Pepsin

49

Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in _____

Bicarbonate

50

Which of these is a hormone name?

Cholecystokinin

51

The hormone which causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme-rich fluid is _____

Cholecystokinin

52

Which organ has the most metabolically active cells?

Liver

53

Ferritin is a globular protein that transports and stores ______ in the liver and blood

Iron

54

Which of the following vitamins is NOT stored in the liver?

C

55

The liver stores ______ for energy

Glycogen

56

Which of the following is NOT a function of the adult liver?

Erythropoiesis

57

The liver contains special blood channels termed _____

Sinusoids

58

The falciform ligament separates the right from _____ lobe

Left

59

Which organ produces and secretes bile?

Liver

60

The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the _____

Liver

61

The buildup of bile pigment in tissues that can be caused by gallstones is _____

Obstructive jaundice

62

Which of these is a water-soluble vitamin?

C

63

Which of the following acts to inhibit acid production?

Somatostatin

64

Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity?

Duodenum

65

The shortest section of the intestines is the _____

Duodenum

66

The membrane that hangs like an apron over the intestines is the _____

Greater omentum

67

The finger-like extensions inside the small intestine are called _____ and increase the surface area

Villi

68

The _____ are vessels that project into the villi and absorb fatty substances

Lacteals

69

The following belong together except which one?
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
- Plicae circulares
- Crypts of Lieberkuhn

Large intestine

70

Which of these does NOT belong with the others?
- Lipase
- Sucrase
- Maltase
- Lactase

Lipase

71

Which is the only area that can digest a double sugar?

Duodenum

72

A peristaltic rush which results in a failure to absorb enough colon water results in _____

Diarrhea

73

The _____________ layer of the alimentary canal contains loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves

Submucosa

74

Activities of the digestive system are generally increased by _________________ nervous stimulation

Parasympathetic

75

The purpose of the soft palate is to __________________

Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing

76

What mouth part helps to mix food with saliva, moves food toward the pharynx for swallowing, and houses taste receptor cells?

Tongue

77

Which salivary glands produce the most viscous saliva with lots of mucus?

Sublingual glands

78

What initiates the swallowing reflex?

Sensory receptors detecting the bolus in the pharynx

79

The main part of the stomach is the _______________ of the stomach

Body

80

Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands?

Parietal cells

81

During which stage of gastric secretion do gastric glands actually begin secreting gastric juice?

Cephalic phase

82

The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme. Choose the enzyme(s) that break(s) down fats

Pancreatic lipase

83

What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme?

Secretin

84

What is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion?

Produces bile to emulsify fats in the small intestine

85

How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine?

Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, and then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons

86

What is the primary function of the large intestine?

To compact, store, and eliminate feces

87

Where does the greatest amount of digestion occur?

Small intestine

88

Which term does NOT belong with the others?
- Teeth
- Mastication
- Esophagus
- Tongue

- Esophagus

89

The portion of a tooth below the gums is the _____

Root

90

The enzyme salivary amylase begins to digest which molecules?

Carbohydrates

91

Where would the least amount of bacteria be found?

Stomach

92

What normally holds the intestines in position within the abdominal cavity?

Mesentery

93

The pancreatic duct connects to what part of the digestive tube?

Duodenum

94

The appendix is attached to which of the following structures?

Cecum

95

Which of these vitamins is formed by bacteria in the colon?

K

96

During swallowing, the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward

True

97

The gastric intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12

True

98

vomiting center is in the medulla oblongata. Vomiting involves respiratory reflexes

Vomiting center is NOT in the hypothalamus. NOT emetics

99

The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills

True

100

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects digestion as well as respiration

True

101

The hepatic portal veins drain the gastrointestinal areas and convey the blood to the liver

NOT draining blood from the liver

102

The liver has the ability to convert carbohydrates into amino acids

True

103

Hepatitis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A which can be transmitted by contaminated food

True

104

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver

NOT infection of the liver

105

Hemolytic jaundice is a symptom of the rapid breakdown of red blood cells

NOT excess production of RBCs

106

The gallbladder only stores the bile; the liver will continue to secrete bile in sufficient amounts to meet nutritional needs

Without the gallbladder, you will NOT be lack of bile (secrete from the liver)

107

In lactose intolerance the person cannot digest lactose sufficiently

NOT because of the rapid digestion of lactose

108

Chylomicrons are lipoprotein aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi

True

109

The digestive system only processes and absorbs what we eat

NOT feeding cells with adequate proteins

110

The so-called wisdom teeth are actually the four last molars

True

111

The pyloric sphincter blocks the stomach

NOT preventing food from leaving the small intestine

112

The area called the vermiform appendix apparently serves no digestive function in humans

True

113

The descending colon usually lies on the left abdominal wall area

True