Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (113):
The parasympathetic nervous system will
Increases activities of the digestive system. Also increases blood pressure.
The Sympathetic nervous system will inhibit (prevent)
certain digestive actions. Fight or flight response.
Another word for voicebox?
Function of the soft palate during digestion process?
Soft palate blocks the upper pharynx to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity.
The function of the epiglottis during digestion process?
Prevent food entry into the respiratory system.
A swallowed ball of food.
Peristalsis is the intestinal
Contractions that move food through the digestive tract
The surface area of the stomach is enhanced by the presence of folds called _____?
What is chyme?
A mass of partially digested food
What is bile?
The fluid that aids digestion. Secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
What is bile salt good for?
Break fat globules into droplets. This process is called emulsification.
What is palate?
Roof of mouth
Which intestinal layer accounts for the action of the peristaltic waves?
The alimentary tube is around _____ meters long?
The _____ nervous system division usually stimulates and promotes digestion
Gastric enzymes are secreted by
Proteins are digested or broken down by the _____ in the stomach
Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one?
- Secretion of somatostatin
- Inhibition of somatostatin
- Secretion of gastrin
- Promotes histamine
Secretion of somatostatin
Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches _____
The alkaline tide occurs when _____ is secreted into the blood
The _____ duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder
The common bile duct is formed by the merger of the hepatic and _____ ducts
The ampulla of Vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the _____ duct
Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a _____ condition
Bile facilitates digestion by causing the _____ of fats
Emulsification (break down of fats)
Bile salts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called _____ that facilitate absorption
Amylase could be found in all of these areas except which one?
Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the _____
Fatty acids and glycerol are released when _____ are broken down by liver or muscle cells
Which of the following is NOT readily absorbed in the small intestine?
The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering the _____
The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the _____
The following are true of the tongue except which one?
Attaches to temporal bone
Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the sites of inflammation?
The term wisdom tooth refers to the _____ tooth
The portion of a tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the _____
Which part of a tooth most closely resembles bone tissue?
Which muscles constrict to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing?
A hiatal hernia is a weakness in the _____ muscle, which allows a portion of the digestive tract to enter the thoracic cavity
The _____ part of the stomach is the area connected to the esophagus
The _____ prevents food from entering the small intestine
What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release?
What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum?
Sphincter of Oddi
Which of the following triggers the formation of the others?
Proteins are split by all of the following pancreatic factors except which one?
Pancreatitis is mainly the result of _____ activity
Which of the following are NOT active in the duodenum?
Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in _____
Which of these is a hormone name?
The hormone which causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme-rich fluid is _____
Which organ has the most metabolically active cells?
Ferritin is a globular protein that transports and stores ______ in the liver and blood
Which of the following vitamins is NOT stored in the liver?
The liver stores ______ for energy
Which of the following is NOT a function of the adult liver?
The liver contains special blood channels termed _____
The falciform ligament separates the right from _____ lobe
Which organ produces and secretes bile?
The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the _____
The buildup of bile pigment in tissues that can be caused by gallstones is _____
Which of these is a water-soluble vitamin?
Which of the following acts to inhibit acid production?
Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity?
The shortest section of the intestines is the _____
The membrane that hangs like an apron over the intestines is the _____
The finger-like extensions inside the small intestine are called _____ and increase the surface area
The _____ are vessels that project into the villi and absorb fatty substances
The following belong together except which one?
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
- Plicae circulares
- Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Which of these does NOT belong with the others?
Which is the only area that can digest a double sugar?
A peristaltic rush which results in a failure to absorb enough colon water results in _____
The _____________ layer of the alimentary canal contains loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves
Activities of the digestive system are generally increased by _________________ nervous stimulation
The purpose of the soft palate is to __________________
Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing
What mouth part helps to mix food with saliva, moves food toward the pharynx for swallowing, and houses taste receptor cells?
Which salivary glands produce the most viscous saliva with lots of mucus?
What initiates the swallowing reflex?
Sensory receptors detecting the bolus in the pharynx
The main part of the stomach is the _______________ of the stomach
Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands?
During which stage of gastric secretion do gastric glands actually begin secreting gastric juice?
The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme. Choose the enzyme(s) that break(s) down fats
What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme?
What is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion?
Produces bile to emulsify fats in the small intestine
How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine?
Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, and then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons
What is the primary function of the large intestine?
To compact, store, and eliminate feces
Where does the greatest amount of digestion occur?
Which term does NOT belong with the others?
The portion of a tooth below the gums is the _____
The enzyme salivary amylase begins to digest which molecules?
Where would the least amount of bacteria be found?
What normally holds the intestines in position within the abdominal cavity?
The pancreatic duct connects to what part of the digestive tube?
The appendix is attached to which of the following structures?
Which of these vitamins is formed by bacteria in the colon?
During swallowing, the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward
The gastric intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
vomiting center is in the medulla oblongata. Vomiting involves respiratory reflexes
Vomiting center is NOT in the hypothalamus. NOT emetics
The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects digestion as well as respiration
The hepatic portal veins drain the gastrointestinal areas and convey the blood to the liver
NOT draining blood from the liver
The liver has the ability to convert carbohydrates into amino acids
Hepatitis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A which can be transmitted by contaminated food
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver
NOT infection of the liver
Hemolytic jaundice is a symptom of the rapid breakdown of red blood cells
NOT excess production of RBCs
The gallbladder only stores the bile; the liver will continue to secrete bile in sufficient amounts to meet nutritional needs
Without the gallbladder, you will NOT be lack of bile (secrete from the liver)
In lactose intolerance the person cannot digest lactose sufficiently
NOT because of the rapid digestion of lactose
Chylomicrons are lipoprotein aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi
The digestive system only processes and absorbs what we eat
NOT feeding cells with adequate proteins
The so-called wisdom teeth are actually the four last molars
The pyloric sphincter blocks the stomach
NOT preventing food from leaving the small intestine
The area called the vermiform appendix apparently serves no digestive function in humans