Digestive System Body Parts Flashcards Preview

Digestion Unit Exam > Digestive System Body Parts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Body Parts Deck (33):
1

Accessory Organs

Pancreas, liver. Gal bladder. Not directly part of the digestive track but play vital roles in digestion

2

Salivary Amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch to glucose

3

Acid

Enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of Carbohydrates

4

Catalyst

Chemical that speeds up a chemical reaction but isn’t used up in the reaction. The catalyst is reuseable

5

Hydrolysis

The addition of a water molecule that seperstes a macromolecule into subunits. Breaks covalent bond in a macromolecule

6

Chyme

A thick liquid formed by mixing foods with gastric juices in stomach

7

Digestive Tract

(In animals) a long tube that extends from the mouth to the rectum. Food moves and is broken down into simpler compoundsthat are used for energy, growth and cell repair

8

Bolus

Smooth lump like mass of food rolled by the tongue to aid swallowing

9

Macromolecule

A large, complex assembly of organic molecules. Have 4 cateagories: Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids & lipids

10

Liver

Organ found in the abdomen that performs hundreds of functions as an accessory organ of the digestive system, including the secretion of bile to digest fats. Produce plasma protein, blood detoxification, and glycogen storage

11

Disaccharide

A sugar that cab be hydrolysized into two monosaccharide sub units. Maltose and sucrose

12

Monosaccharide

Simple sugar that cannot be hydrolysized into simpler sugars. Made up of fructose, glucose & galactose

13

Upper esophageal (cardiac) sphincter

A muscular ring between the esophagus and the stomach that controls the movement of food in and out of the stomach

14

Dehydration Synthesis

Chemical reaction that results in the formation of a covalent bond between two subunit molecules by the removal of a -OH (hydroxyl) group from one subunit and a hydrogen from the other making a waste molecule

15

Gall Bladder

Organ that stores bile produced by the liver

16

Gastrin

A stomach hormone that stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid and te inactive precursor molecule of pepsin from glands in the stomach

17

Homeostasis

The tendency of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment

18

Steapsin

Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids

19

Enzyme

Protein molecule that acts as a catalyst to increase the rate of a reaction

20

Pancreas

Small gland in the abdomen that secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine as well as bicarbonate to neutralize hydrochloric acid from the stomach

21

Inhibitor

Molecule that attaches to an enzyme and reduces its availablity to bind substrate; competitive and noncompetitive are its two classes

22

Pepsin

Protein-digesting enzyme secreted in the stomach; remains inactive until hydrochloric acid is present

23

Peristalsis

A wave like seriws of muscular contractions and relaxations of the circular and longitudinal muscles that surround the various parts of the digestive track; aiding the movement of food

24

Polysaccharide

A complex carbohydrate containing many simple sugars linked together (e.g. starch, cellulose, and glycogen)

25

Peptide Bonds

Enzyme that hydrolyzes the peptide bonds that link amino acids in proteins and peptides

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Substrate

Substance that an enzymes acts on

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Triglyceride

Organic molecule composed of one glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids. Main component of fats and oils

28

Villi

Stringy projection on the small intestine. They increase the surface area aiding in the absorbance of nutrients

29

Essential amino acid

Refers to the 9/20 amino acids thatcome from the diet because the body cant synthesize them

30

Nucleic acid

Macromolecule formed from a long chain of nucleotide subunits, eash consisting of a five carbon simple sugar, a nitrogen containing base, and a phosphate group; dna or rna

31

Protein

Bond between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another in a protein

32

Small intestine

Main function is to complete the digestion of macromolecules and to absorb their component subunits. Its made up of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

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Large Intestine

Main function is to concentrate and eliminate waste materials. Made up of the caecum, colon, rectum, & anal canal