digestive tract disorders part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in digestive tract disorders part 2 Deck (42):
1

Inflammation of the parotid glands

Parotitis

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Cause of Parotitis

Causes painful swelling of the salivary glands below the ear next to the lower jaw; pain increases during eating

3

treatment Parotitis

Treated with antibiotics, mouthwashes, and warm compresses; surgical drainage or removal may be necessary

4

has no known cause; affects men more often than women, usually diagnosed in th 5th/6th decade if life, usually do not experience symtpoms until the disease has progressed to interfere with swallowing and passage of food

Esophageal Cancer

5

predisposing factors of Esophageal Cancer

are cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol intake, chronic trauma, poor oral hygiene, and eating spicy foods

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s/s of Esophageal Cancer

Progressive dysphagia

7

medical diagnosis of esophageal cancer

Barium swallow, computed tomography, esophagoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography

8

Medical and surgical treatment
Esophageal Cancer

Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or various combinations

9

Nursing assessment of Esophageal Cancer

Dysphagia, pain, and choking
Hoarseness, cough, anorexia, weight loss, and regurgitation
The functional assessment documents the use of alcohol and tobacco and dietary practices

10

nursing interventions Esophageal Cancer

Pain
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
Anxiety
Risk for Injury
Impaired Gas Exchange
Deficient Knowledge

11

sometimes referred to as queasiness

Nausea

12

forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth

Vomiting

13

Complications of N/V

Significant losses of fluids and electrolytes
Aspiration

14

Medical treatment of N/V

Antiemetics
Intravenous fluids
Oral fluids may be limited to clear liquids or withheld
Nasogastric tube

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Nursing assessment of N/V

Onset, frequency, and duration of present illness
Conditions under which nausea and vomiting occur
Amount, color, odor, and contents of the vomitus
Surgeries, chronic illnesses, allergies, and medications
General appearance; record vital signs, height/weight
Assess pulse and blood pressure, tissue turgor, mental status, and muscle tone
Inspect, auscultate, and palpate the abdomen for distention, bowel sounds, and tenderness

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Nursing interventions for N/V

Imbalanced Nutrition and Deficient Fluid Volume
Risk for Aspiration

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Causes of N/V

drugs, infections and inflammatory conditions, intestinal obstruction, systemic infection, food poisoning, emotional stress,early pregnancy, uremia

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The vomiting center that is located in the ? is particularly sensitive to

Medulla
parasympathetic neurotransmitters/gastric irritation

19

accompanies the forceful expulsion of the stomach contents causes dizziness hypotension bradycardia

The Valsalva maneuver

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lab levels of N/V

Prolonged vomiting may lead to low levels of serum sodium and chloride. Bicarb levels may rise

21

How do you advance a client solids food if they are having N/V

When clients tolerates clear liquids, advance to full liquids then to soft, bland food such as creamed soup, crackers or toast

22

When patient returns from the operating room after oral surgery,

• they should be positioned flat on abdomen or side with head turned to the side to facilitate drainage from mouth. After recovery from anesthesia the client is positioned with head elevated

23

The nurse should not irrigate the clients mouth until the client is

awake and alert

24

Mouth irrigation is carried out by

turning the clients head to the side to allow the solution to run

25

Protrusion of lower esophagus and stomach up through the diaphragm and into the chest
Protrusion of part of the stomach into lower portion of the thorax

Hiatal Hernia

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is the junction of the stomach and the esophagus and part of the stomach slide in and out through the weekend portion of the diaphragm

axial or sliding hernia

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the fundus is displaces upward with greater curvature of the stomach going through the diaphragm next to the gastroesphageal junction

paraesophageal hernia

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Hiatal hernia results in a defect in the

diaphragm at the point where the esophagus passes though it. more common in women

29

Causes of hiatal hernias

Weakness of diaphragm muscles where esophagus and stomach join, but exact cause is not known
Factors are excessive intra-abdominal pressure, trauma, and long-term bed rest in a reclining position

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S/S of hiatal hernias

Many people have no symptoms at all; others report feelings of fullness, dysphagia, eructation, regurgitation, and heartburn

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Medical diagnosis of hiatal hernias

Barium swallow examination with fluoroscopy
Esophagoscopy
Esophageal manometry

32

medical treatment of hiatal hernias

Drug therapy, diet, and measures to avoid increased intra-abdominal pressure
Surgery: fundoplication and placement of the synthetic Angelchik prosthesis (C-shaped silicone device), antacids

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nursing assessment of hiatal hernias

Document symptoms
Record factors that trigger symptoms as well as measures that aggravate or relieve them
Patient’s dietary habits, use of alcohol and tobacco, and medication history

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nursing interventions of hiatal hernias

Chronic Pain
Risk for Aspiration
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

35

postoperative care for hiatal hernia

Turning, coughing, and deep breathing
Patient might have nasogastric tube in place and connected to suction for a day or two
Until bowel function returns, the patient is given only intravenous fluids
Tell the patient to expect mild dysphagia for several weeks

36

Painful burning sensation that moves up and down, commonly occurs after meals, and is relieved by antacids
is a common disorder that develops when gastric contents flow upward into the esphagus

GERDS

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medical diagnosis of GERDS

Suggested by the signs and symptoms
Endoscopy, biopsy, gastric analysis, esophageal manometry, 24-hour monitoring of esophageal pH, and acid perfusion tests

38

medical treatment of GERDS

Like those described earlier for hiatal hernia
Drug therapy may include H2-receptor blockers, prokinetic agents, and proton pump inhibitors
If medical care unsuccessful, surgical fundoplication
weight loss, maintain upright position following meals, elevate head of bed when sleeping, avoid food and fluids 2-3 h before bedtime and avoid foods that intensify symptoms

39

Cause of GERDS

inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to close fully, allowing stomach contents to flow freely into esophagus

40

S/S of GERDS

most common is epigastric pain/discomfort (dyspepsia), burning sensation in the esophagus (pyrosis), and regurgitation, dysphagia, painful swallowing, esophagitis

41

because the esophagus is anatomically close to the heart, clients w/ epigastric pain may think they are having a

heart attack

42

is a procedure that tightens the LES by wrapping the gastric fundus around the lower esophagus and suturing it into place, this is the most common type of procedure for GERD

fundoplication