Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect) Deck (143):
1

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He says: ''I am very hungry''.

Il dit: ''J'ai très faim.''

2

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He says that he is very hungry.

Il dit qu'il a très faim.

3

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to claim

affirmer

4

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to add

ajouter

5

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to announce

annoncer

6

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to assure

assurer

7

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to confess

avouer

8

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to notice, observe

constater

9

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to understand

comprendre

10

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to shout

crier

11

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to believe

croire

12

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to declare

déclarer

13

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to ask

demander

14

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to say

dire

15

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to explain

expliquer

16

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
not to know

ignorer

17

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to propose

proposer

18

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to tell

raconter

19

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to repeat

répéter

20

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to know

savoir

21

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
to suggest

suggérer

22

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
It is raining.

Il pleut

23

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Hurry!

Dépêche-toi

24

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Do you have any money?

As-tu d l'argent?

25

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
How is the declarative sentence built in indirect speech?

In indirect speech, the declarative sentence becomes a subordinate clause introduced by ''que'' (that). Depending on the tense in the main clause, the tense or mood in the subordinate clause may change.
1. When the introductory verb (i.e. the verb in the main clause) is in the present, future or conditional, the tense of the verb in the subordinate clause remains the same as in the declarative sentence of the direct speech.
e.g. Il dit: ''C'est vrai''. - Il dit que c'est vrai.
2. When the introductory verb is in a past tense (passé compose, imperfect, pluperfect, passé simple), the following changes occur when transferring direct speech to indirect speech.
a. the present tense becomes imperfect
b. the passé compose becomes the pluperfect
c. the passé recent (present tense of venir+de+infinitive) becomes the recent past in the past
d. the future tense becomes the present conditional
e. the future proche (present tense of aller+infinitive) becomes the future proche in the past (imperfect tense of aller+infinitive)
f. the future antérieur becomes the past conditional

BUT
The imperfect, pluperfect, conditional (present and past) and subjunctive do not change.

26

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He says that thi is true.

Il dit que c'est vrai.

27

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He claims that it was raining.

Il affirme qu'il pleuvait.

28

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He shouts that he lost his keys.

Il crie qu'il a perdu ses clès.

29

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He will declare that he will be ready.

Il declarer qu'il sera prêt.

30

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He would say that it serves you right.

Il dirait que c'est bien fait pour toi.

31

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She says that she will go to the movies with her husband.

Elle dit qu'elle ira au cinéma avec son mari.

32

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He says that I promised him to apologize.

Il dit que je luiai promis de m'excuser.

33

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She said that she was tired.

Elle a dit qu'elle était fatigue.

34

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He added that he had forgotten.

Il a precise qu'il avait oublié.

35

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He added that had just woken up.

Il a ajouté qu'il venait de se réveiller.

36

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He claimed that the weather would be nice.

Il affirmait qu'il ferait beau.

37

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He had promised that he was going to do his best.

Il avait promis qu'il allait faire de son mieux.

38

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He declared that he would be finished on Tuesday.

Il déclara qu'il aurait terminé mardi.

39

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He told us that it was raining all the time.

Il nous a raconté qu'il pleuvait tout le temps.

40

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He murmured that he had received many gifts.

Il a murmuré qu'il avait reçu beaucoup de cadeaux.

41

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He added that he would be happy if I helped him.

Il a ajouté qu'il serait heureux si je l'aidais.

42

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He said that he would have liked to finished his work in time.

Il a dit qu'il aurait aimé finir son travail à temps.

43

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He repeated that I had to be on time.

Il a répété qu'il fallait que je sois à l'heure.

44

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She declared that she didn't believe that he survived.

Elle a déclaré qu'elle ne croyait pas qu'il ait survécu.

45

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He says that he will bring some wine we will have a good time.

Il dit qu'il apportera du vin et que nous nous amuserons.

46

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
''I am delighted'' declared my mother.

''Je suis ravie'' a déclaré ma mère.

47

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
''I don`t know anything about it'', I murmured.

''Je n'en sais rien'' murmurai-je.

48

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
''I am not feeling well'', she said.

''Je ne me sens pas bien'', a-t-elle dit.

49

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
How is the imperative sentence transformed in indirect speech?

In indirect speech, the imperative becomes an infinitive introduced by "de" (regardless of the tense of the introductory verb).
e.g. Le professeur dit aux étudiants: ''Parlez plus fort!'' - Le professeur dit aux étudiants de parler plus fort.

The imperative can also become subjunctive introduced by ''que''.
e.g. Il m'a ordonné de partir.

NOTE: The preposition ''de'' is repeated before each infinitive if there is more than one command.
e.g. Elle m'a dit de me taire et de boire mn lait.

50

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
The teacher tells the students to speak louder.

Le professeur dit aux étudiants de parler plus fort.

51

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He said to his wife not to get angry.

Il a dit à sa femme de ne pas se fâcher.

52

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She told me to hurry.

Elle m'a dit de me dépêcher.

53

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He ordered me to leave.

Il m'a ordonné de partir.
or
Il a ordonné que je parte.

54

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She told me to be quiet and drink my milk.

Elle m'a dit de me taire et de boire mon lait.

55

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
My parents told me to write to them more often.

Mes parents m'ont dit de leur écrire plus souvent.

56

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He told me not to take my car, that he would take his.

Il m'a dit de ne pas prendre ma voiture, qu'il prendrait la sienne.

57

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
How is the question transformed in indirect speech?

In indirect speech, direct questions become indirect questions. Indirect questions which are not quoted directly but indirectly through an introductory declarative, negative or imperative phrase with verbs such as ''comprendre, demander, se demander, dire, expliquer, ignorer, s'informer, savoir, vouloir savoir, etc.

When the subordinate clause is an indirect question, it is introduced by ''si (whether), où, quand, pourquoi, comment, etc. Indirect questions do not have a question mark. There is no subject-verb inversion in indirect questions. The word order is the same as in normal declarative sentence. The changes in personal pronouns, possessive adjectives and pronouns as well as verb tenses that occur when direct questions are transformed into indirect questions are the same as for declarative sentences.
e.g.
Il m'a demandé si je partagerais mon sandwich avec lui.

58

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He asked me whether I would share my sandwich with him.

Il m'a demandé si je partagerais mon sandwich avec lui.

59

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
How is the direct question introduced by ''est-ce-que'' or using rising intonation or inversion transformed into indirect speech?

When a direct question is introduced by ''est-ce-que'', or when it uses rising intonation or inversion, si (whether) is used in the corresponding indirect question.
e.g Demandez à votre voisine si elle est prête.

NOTE: If there is more than one question, ''si'' must be repeated.
e.g. Il a demandé si ça allait et si on pouvait y aller.

60

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Can ''si'' be followed by a verb.

While ''si'' meaning ''if'' cannot be followed by a verb in the future or conditional, ''si'' meaning ''whether'' can.
e.g. Je me demande si je trouverai un travail.

61

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I wonder whether I will find a job.

Je me demande si je trouverai un travail.

62

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Ask your neighbor whether she is ready.

Demandez à votre voisine si elle est prête.

63

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I would like to know whether he understood.

Je voudrais savoir s'il a compris.

64

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He asked me whether I would come.

Il m'a demandé si je viendrais.

65

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He asked whether everything was OK and whether we could go.

Il a demandé si ça allait et si on pouvait y aller.

66

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Paul asked Anne whether she could help him and she said no.

Paul a demandé à Anne si elle pouvait l'aider et elle a dit que non.

67

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
How is the direct question with and interrogative adverb transformed into indirect speech?

When the direct question begins with an interrogative adverb (où, quand, pourquoi, combien, comment) the indirect question will do the same.
e.g. Il m'a demande où j'allais.

68

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He asked me where I was going.

Il m'a demandé où j'allais.

69

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I want to know when the class begins.

Je veux savoir quand la classe commence.

70

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He doesn't know why I'm laughing.

Il ignore pourquoi je ris.

71

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I wonder how many children he has.

Je me demande combien d'enfants il a.

72

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He told me how much she weighed.

Il m'a dit combien elle pesait.

73

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He asked how I would get to the airport.

Il a demandé comment j'irais à l'aéroport.

74

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
How is the direct question beginning with the interrogative adjective ''quell(le)(s)'' or with the interrogative pronoun ''lequel (laquelle, etc.)'', transformed into indirct speech?

When the direct question begins with the interrogative adjective ''quell(le)(s)'' or with the interrogative pronoun ''lequel (laquelle, etc.), the indirect question will do the same.
e.g. Je me demande quelle heure il est.

75

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I wonder what time it is.

Je me demande quelle heure il est.

76

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Tell me what day is today.

Dis-moi quel jour nous sommes aujourd'hui.

77

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I don't know how old she is.

Je sais pas quel âge elle a.

78

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He asked me which one I preffered.

Il m'a demandé lequel je préférais.

79

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
When is ''si'' elided?

''Si'' is elided to '' s' '' when followed by ''il'' or ''ils'' (s'il, s'ils). ''Si'' is not elided before ''elle, elles, on''. (si elle, si ells, si on).

80

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What changes take place when the direct question begins with an interrogative pronoun?

When the direct question begins with an invariable interrogative pronoun, the following changes take place:
- for persons, the interrogative pronouns remain the same in the indirect question, but only the short forms are used.
direct q. indirect q.
subject: qui qui
qui est-ce qui qui
direct object.: qui qui
qui est-ce que qui
object of a qui qui
preposition: qui est-ce que qui

e.g. Elle m'a demandé qui avait dit ça.

- for things, the subject and direct object pronouns change, and the short form ''quoi'' is used after prepositions.
direct q. indirect q.
subject: qu'est-ce qui ce qui
direct o.: que ce que
qu'est-ce que ce que
object of a quoi quoi
preposition: quoi est-ce que

e.g. Je me demande ce qui s'est passé.

81

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Who said that?

Qui est-ce qui (or: qui) a dir ça?

82

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Whom do you know?

Qui est-ce que tu connais? (or: Qui connais-tu?)

83

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Whit whom is Mary going out?

Avec qui est-ce que Marie sort?
or:
Avec qui sort Marie?

84

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She asked me who had said that.

Elle m'a demandé qui avait dit ça.

85

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She wanted to know whom I knew.

Elle voulait savoir qui je connaissais.

86

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
She didn't know with whom Mary was going out.

Elle ne savait pas avec qui Marie sortait.

87

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What happened?

Qu'est-ce qui s'est passé?

88

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What's on the movies?

Qu'est-ce qui passé au cinema?

89

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What is he doing?

Que fait-il?
or:
Qu'est-ce qu'il fait?

90

What is that?

Qu'est-ce que c'est?

91

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What does the teacher say?

Qu'est-ce que le professeur dit?

92

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What is he afraid of?

De quoi a-t-il peur?
or:
De quoi est-ce qu'il a peur?

93

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What is this about?

De quoi s'agit-il?

94

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I wonder what happened.

Je me demande ce qui s'est passé.

95

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I don't know what's playing at the movies.

Je sais pas ce qui passé au cinema.

96

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Tell us what he does.

Dites-nous ce qu'il fait.

97

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I don't know what that is.

Je ne sais pas ce que c'est.

98

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I don't understand what the teacher says.

Je ne comprends pas ce que le professeur dit.

99

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
I would like to know what he is afraid of.

Je voudrais savoir de quoi il a peur.

100

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
Explain to me what this is about.

Expliquez-moi de quoi il s'agit.

101

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What are the rules of the word order in indirect questions?

The word order in indirect questions is generally the same as in declarative sentence, i.e., the subject precedes the verb, no matter whether the indirect question is introduced by ''si, quand, où, quel+noun'' or another interrogative adverb and regardless of whether the subject is apronoun or a noun.

But whereas the inversion is never made with a pronoun subject (je ne sais pas où il travaille), one can put a noun subject either before or after the verb (je ne sais pas où son mari travaille or: je ne sais pas où travaille son mari), except after ''si, pouruoi'' and if the verb of the indirect question has a compliment (je ne sais pas si son maritravaille, je ne sais pas pourquoi son mari travaille, je ne sais pas quand son mari travaille au bureau.

Inversion with a noun subject is, however, mandatory when the verb ''être'' follows ''quel, qui, où'' or another question word ( ell va vous demander quelle est votre taille; je me demande qui sera le president; je voudrais savoir où est la poste). Note also that complicated inversion, which is made with noun subjects in direct questions (pourquoi le garcon pleure-t-il) does not exist in indirect questions (je ne sai pas pourquoi le garcon pleure).

102

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the previous day

la veille

103

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the previous night

la veille au soir

104

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the previous night

la nuit précédente (inf.: d'avant)

105

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two days before

l'avant-veille

106

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the Monday before

le lundi precedent (inf.: d'avant)

107

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the previous year

l'année précédente (inf.: d'avant)

108

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the previous month

le mois precedent (inf.: d'avant)

109

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the previous week

la semaine précédente (inf.: d'avant)

110

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the time before

la fois précédente (inf.: d'avant)

111

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two days before

deux jour plus tôt (inf.: avant)

112

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two weeks before

deux semaines plus tôt (inf.: avant)

113

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
three months before

trois mois plus tôt (inf.: avant)

114

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
a year before

une année plus tôt (inf.: avant)

115

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
at that time | moment

à ce moment-là

116

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that day

ce jour-là

117

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that morning

ce matin-là

118

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that evening

ce soir-là

119

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that night

cette nuit-là

120

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that week

cette semaine-là

121

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that month

ce mois-là

122

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
that year

cette année-là

123

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the time before

la fois d'avant

124

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the next day, the day after

le lendemain

125

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the next morning

le lendemain matin

126

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the next evening

le lendemain soir

127

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two days later

le surlendemain

128

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the following Tuesday

le mardi suivant (inf.: d'après)

129

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the following week

la semaine suivante (inf.: d'après)

130

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the following month

le mois suivant (inf.: d'après)

131

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the following year

l'année suivante (inf.: d'après)

132

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
the time after that

la fois suivante (inf.: d'après)

133

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
three days later

trois jours plus tard (inf.: après)

134

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two weeks later

deux semaines plus tard (inf.: après)

135

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two months later

deux mois plus tard (inf.: après)

136

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
two years later

deux ans plus tard (inf.: après)

137

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He said that he was tired at that time.

Il a dit qu'il était fatigue à ce moment-là.

138

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He said that he would leave the next day.

Il a dit qu'il partirait le lendemain.

139

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He said that he had arrived the day before.

Il a dit qu'il était arrivé la veille.

140

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
What is used in the informal language instead of ''plus tôt, précédent(e), plus tard'' and ''suivant(e)''.

plus tôt - avant
précédent(e) - d'avant
plus tard - après
suivant(e) - d'après

'' D' '' is used before ''avant'' and ''après'' when the expression of time is preceded by ''le, la'' or '' l' ''.
e.g. deux mois avant = deux mois plus tôt
le mois d'avant = le mois precedent
deux semaines après = deux semaines plus tard
la semaine d'après = la semaine suivante

141

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He told me this morning that he would call me the day after tomorrow.

Il m'a dit ce matin qu'il me téléphonerait après-demain.

142

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He told me last week that he would call me two days later.

Il m'a dit la semaine dernière qu'il me téléphonerait le surlendemain.

143

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (le discours direct et le discours indirect)
He told me to stay there.

Il m'a dit de rester là.