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Flashcards in Disease And Pathogens Deck (55):
0

Define phagocytes:

(White blood cells) that engulf and destroy any foreign matter (pathogens) that gets into the body.

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Define phagocytosis:

Through the second line of defence when phagocytes destroy foreign matter.

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Define antigen :

Specific chemicals on the pathogen.

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Define pathogen:

A disease causing agent

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Define histamine:

A chemical that causes inflammation, itchy throat and runny nose. The symptoms are designed to expel or limit pathogens.

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Diseases can be spread by air:

Sneezing, coughing . Flu

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Diseases can be spread by water:

Dirty water etc.

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Diseases can be spread by contact:

Physical

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Diseases can be spread by vectors:

Animals - Mosquitos (malaria) etc.

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3rd line of defence

Specific memory cells eg. Chicken pox, antibodies and antigens.... Antihistamines

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2nd line of defence

Phagocytes- inflammation (fever)

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1st line of defence

Non specific- eg. Stomach acids, skin (intact), saliva

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Why do we take antihistamine tablets?

To remove the symptoms caused by the body mistaking harmless substances for harmful pathogens (allergic reaction)

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Interferon (2nd line of defence)

Attacked by the pathogen, signals neighbouring cells and they activate defence mechanisms (activate immune cells that come to affected area)

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Mast cells

Release histamine (causes inflammation)

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What is an antigen??

A chemical on the surface of a pathogen

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What are antibodies ?

Specific proteins that destroy pathogens.

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What is given to the body in a vaccination?

Dead or weakened pathogens or part of their antigens

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How does vaccination work?

Memory cells are produced. They remain in the body to produce the necessary antibodies if there is a infection of a live pathogen.

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When your immune system produces memory cells against a pathogen you get:

Acquired immunity.

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There is no vaccine available for :

HIV/ AIDS

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What type of microbe is the smallest?

Virus

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How can infectious diseases spread?

The harmful microbe passes from person to person

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Betadine is an

Antiseptic

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What is the cause of athletes foot?

A skin infection by fungus

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How is influenza spread?

In droplets when people cough and sneeze

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How do viruses reproduce?

They invade cells no direct them to make new viruses.

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What is an antigen?

A chemical on the surface of a pathoge.

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Bacteria disease:

Leprosy

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Prion disease:

Mad cow disease

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Virus disease:

HIV/AIDS

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Fungi disease:

Athletes foot

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What is inflammation?

The reaction of the body to an infection (eg. Fever)

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Define phagocyte

Certain type of white blood cell that engulfs or destroys pathogens

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What is phagocytosis ?

Action of phagocytes destroying pathogens

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What's antiseptic ?

Agents used to inhibit or destroy microbes on living tissue

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What is the control Center in the reflex arc?

The spinal chord

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What is the purpose of a reflex arc?

To keep you safe

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Why arnt hormones involved in the reflex arc?

Because they're slow acting

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What cells are involved in the reflex arc?

-sensory
- inter
- motor

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Bacteria is

Prokaryotic

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A virus is

Neither eukaryotic nor prokaryotic

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Fungi is

Eukaryotic

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Prion is

Neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic

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Protist is

Eukaryotic

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Does bacteria have DNA/RNA?

Yes

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Does virus have DNA/RNA

Yes

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Does fungi have DNA/RNA?

Yes

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Does prion have DNA/RNA ?

No

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Does protist have DNA/RNA ?

Yes

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Does bacteria have a cell wall?

Yes

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Does virus have. Cell wall?

No

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Does prion have a cell wall?

No

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Does fungi have a cell wall?

Yes

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Does protist have a cell wall?

No