Flashcards in Disease And Pathogens Deck (55):
(White blood cells) that engulf and destroy any foreign matter (pathogens) that gets into the body.
Through the second line of defence when phagocytes destroy foreign matter.
Define antigen :
Specific chemicals on the pathogen.
A disease causing agent
A chemical that causes inflammation, itchy throat and runny nose. The symptoms are designed to expel or limit pathogens.
Diseases can be spread by air:
Sneezing, coughing . Flu
Diseases can be spread by water:
Dirty water etc.
Diseases can be spread by contact:
Diseases can be spread by vectors:
Animals - Mosquitos (malaria) etc.
3rd line of defence
Specific memory cells eg. Chicken pox, antibodies and antigens.... Antihistamines
2nd line of defence
Phagocytes- inflammation (fever)
1st line of defence
Non specific- eg. Stomach acids, skin (intact), saliva
Why do we take antihistamine tablets?
To remove the symptoms caused by the body mistaking harmless substances for harmful pathogens (allergic reaction)
Interferon (2nd line of defence)
Attacked by the pathogen, signals neighbouring cells and they activate defence mechanisms (activate immune cells that come to affected area)
Release histamine (causes inflammation)
What is an antigen??
A chemical on the surface of a pathogen
What are antibodies ?
Specific proteins that destroy pathogens.
What is given to the body in a vaccination?
Dead or weakened pathogens or part of their antigens
How does vaccination work?
Memory cells are produced. They remain in the body to produce the necessary antibodies if there is a infection of a live pathogen.
When your immune system produces memory cells against a pathogen you get:
There is no vaccine available for :
What type of microbe is the smallest?
How can infectious diseases spread?
The harmful microbe passes from person to person
Betadine is an
What is the cause of athletes foot?
A skin infection by fungus
How is influenza spread?
In droplets when people cough and sneeze
How do viruses reproduce?
They invade cells no direct them to make new viruses.
What is an antigen?
A chemical on the surface of a pathoge.
Mad cow disease
What is inflammation?
The reaction of the body to an infection (eg. Fever)
Certain type of white blood cell that engulfs or destroys pathogens
What is phagocytosis ?
Action of phagocytes destroying pathogens
What's antiseptic ?
Agents used to inhibit or destroy microbes on living tissue
What is the control Center in the reflex arc?
The spinal chord
What is the purpose of a reflex arc?
To keep you safe
Why arnt hormones involved in the reflex arc?
Because they're slow acting
What cells are involved in the reflex arc?
A virus is
Neither eukaryotic nor prokaryotic
Neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic
Does bacteria have DNA/RNA?
Does virus have DNA/RNA
Does fungi have DNA/RNA?
Does prion have DNA/RNA ?
Does protist have DNA/RNA ?
Does bacteria have a cell wall?
Does virus have. Cell wall?
Does prion have a cell wall?
Does fungi have a cell wall?