Flashcards in Disease of Musculoskeletal system (1 & 2) Deck (23):
What is arthritis?
Inflammation of joint
Pain and stiffness to joint
Not single condition - 100s of different diseases!
How does acute arthritis present?
Pain, swelling, heat, erythema
What are the two types of chronic arthritis?
What is the clinical pathology of oesteoarthiritis?
Degeneration of articular cartilage
Formation of bony spurs and cysts in joint margins
What are the primary and secondary causes of osteoarthritis?
Primary = abnormal stresses in weight bearing joints
Secondary - activity related e.g. sports; disease e,g, diabetes/obesity
What is the cellular basis of osteoarthritis?
Chondrocytes (cartilage producing) produce interleukin-1 which initiates matrix breakdown
Prostaglandins - produce lytic enzymes which prevent matrix synthesis
What occurs in osteoarthritis of the hands/fingers?
Herberdens and Bouchard's nodes
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Chronic systemic disorder (principally effects joints)
What is rheumatoid arthritis characterised by?
Non-Suppurative proliferative synovitis produces pannus
Pannus = abnormal fibrovascular/granulation layer
Causes progressive destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis of joints
What genetic genotype is associated with rheumatoid arthritis ?
HLA-DR4 or HLA-DR1 (one or both!)
What virus is considered a primary arthritogen?
What cytokines/factors are associated with panes formation?
IL1-6, cytokines, TNF-alpha and beta
What are the diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis?
-Arthritis in >3 places
-Arthritis in hands
-Serum rheumatoid factors -not specific - look in synovial fluid for neutrophils!
4 of the above
What is Gout caused by?
Hyperuricemia - uric acid = end product of pyrite metabolism - enzyme deficiency
What are the clinical features of gout?
Crystallisation of urates in joint spaces - tophi
- chronic/acute arthritis
What is osteoporosis?
Increased propensity of skeleton (reduced bone mass)
Primary = age and postmenopausal
Secondary - hyperparathyroidism
What are the clinical features of osteoporosis?
What infection is Pagets disease associated with>?
What is the pathogenesis of Pagets disease and clinical characteristics?
Rapid bone turnover but too much bone being formed - structurally unsound and disordered
Chalk break fractures
What is osteomalacia due to?
Vit D deficiency
Or hyperparathyroidism (increases bone reabsorption from skeleton)
What does soft tissue comprise?
-Extra skeletal non-epithelial structures
- exclusive of supportive tissue or organs/lymphoid/hamatopoietic tissue
MESODERMAL in orgin
What are the common sites where secondary metastatic deposits originate from?