Disease of Musculoskeletal system (1 & 2) Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Disease of Musculoskeletal system (1 & 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disease of Musculoskeletal system (1 & 2) Deck (23):
1

What is arthritis?

Inflammation of joint

Pain and stiffness to joint

Not single condition - 100s of different diseases!

2

How does acute arthritis present?

Short duration

Pain, swelling, heat, erythema

3

What are the two types of chronic arthritis?

Osteoarthirits
Rheumatoid arthritis

4

What is the clinical pathology of oesteoarthiritis?

Ageing phenomenon

Degeneration of articular cartilage

Formation of bony spurs and cysts in joint margins

5

What are the primary and secondary causes of osteoarthritis?

Primary = abnormal stresses in weight bearing joints

Secondary - activity related e.g. sports; disease e,g, diabetes/obesity

6

What is the cellular basis of osteoarthritis?

Chondrocytes (cartilage producing) produce interleukin-1 which initiates matrix breakdown

Prostaglandins - produce lytic enzymes which prevent matrix synthesis

7

What occurs in osteoarthritis of the hands/fingers?

Herberdens and Bouchard's nodes

8

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

Chronic systemic disorder (principally effects joints)

9

What is rheumatoid arthritis characterised by?

Non-Suppurative proliferative synovitis produces pannus

Pannus = abnormal fibrovascular/granulation layer

Causes progressive destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis of joints

10

What genetic genotype is associated with rheumatoid arthritis ?

HLA-DR4 or HLA-DR1 (one or both!)

11

What virus is considered a primary arthritogen?

EBV

12

What cytokines/factors are associated with panes formation?

IL1-6, cytokines, TNF-alpha and beta

13

What are the diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis?

-Morning stiffness
-Arthritis in >3 places
-Arthritis in hands
-Rheumatoid nodules
-SYMMETRICAL ARTHRITIS
-Serum rheumatoid factors -not specific - look in synovial fluid for neutrophils!

4 of the above

14

What is Gout caused by?

Hyperuricemia - uric acid = end product of pyrite metabolism - enzyme deficiency

15

What are the clinical features of gout?

Crystallisation of urates in joint spaces - tophi

- chronic/acute arthritis

-Gouty neuropathy

16

What is osteoporosis?

Increased propensity of skeleton (reduced bone mass)

Primary = age and postmenopausal

Secondary - hyperparathyroidism

17

What are the clinical features of osteoporosis?

Kyphosis
Scoliosis
Vertebral fractures

18

What infection is Pagets disease associated with>?

Paramyxovirus

19

What is the pathogenesis of Pagets disease and clinical characteristics?

Osteoclastic inactivity

Osteoblastic overactivity

Rapid bone turnover but too much bone being formed - structurally unsound and disordered

Chalk break fractures

20

What is osteomalacia due to?

Vit D deficiency

Or hyperparathyroidism (increases bone reabsorption from skeleton)

21

What does soft tissue comprise?

-Extra skeletal non-epithelial structures

- exclusive of supportive tissue or organs/lymphoid/hamatopoietic tissue

MESODERMAL in orgin

22

What are the common sites where secondary metastatic deposits originate from?

Prostate
Lung
Breast
Thyroid
Kidney

23

True or false - sarcomas commonly spread through the lymph system?

False - mainly haematogenous

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