Diseases Conditions And Procedures (Eyes & Ears) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases Conditions And Procedures (Eyes & Ears) Deck (40):
1

Astigmatism

Refractive disorder in which excessive curvature of the cornea or lens causes light to be scattered over the retina, rather than focused on a single point, resulting in a distorted image.
[-a-=without, not; stigmat=point, mark; -ism=condition]

2

Cataract

Degenerative disease that is due mainly to the aging process in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively cloudy, causing decreased vision, and that is treated with cataract surgery (phacoemulsification)

3

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva that can be caused by bacteria, allergy, irritation, or a foreign body; aka "pinkeye"
[conjunctiv= conjunctiva; -itis=inflammation]

4

Diabetic reinopathy

Retinal damage in diabetic patients marked by aneurysm all dilation and bleeding of blood vessels or the formation of new blood vessels causing visual changes
[retin/o= retina; -pathy=disease]

5

Hordeolum

Small, purulent, inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; aka "sty"

6

Macular degeneration

Deterioration of the macula, resulting in loss of central vision; most common cause of visual impairment in persons older than 50

7

Photophobia

Unusual interoperable and sensitivity to light that occurs in disorders such as meningitis, eye inflammation, measles, and rubella
[phot/o= light; -phobia = fear]

8

Retinal detachment

Separation of the retina from the choroid, which disrupts vision and results in blindness if not repaired
[retin=retina; -al=pertaining to]

9

Strabismus

Muscular eye disorder in which the eyes turn from the normal position so that they deviate in different directions

10

Esotropia

Strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one eye toward that of the other eye, resulting in diplopia; aka "cross-eye" or "convergent strabismus"
[eso-=inward; -tropia=turning]

11

Exotropia

Strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one eye away from that of the other, resulting in diplopia; aka "wall-eye" or "divergent strabismus"

12

Hearing loss

Loss of sense or perception of sound

13

Anacusis

Total deafness (complete hearing loss)
[an-=without, not; -acusis= hearing]

14

Conductive hearing

Results from any condition that prevents sound waves from being transmitted to the auditory receptors

15

Presbycusis

Hearing loss that gradually occurs in most individuals as the grow older
[presby= old age; cusis= hearing]

16

Sensorineural

Inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear as a result of damage to the auditory (acoustic) nerve or cochlea; aka "nerve deafness"

17

Menière disease

Rare disorder characterized by progressive deafness, vertigo, and tinnitus, possibly secondary to swelling of membranous structures within the labyrinth

18

Otitis media (OM)

Inflammation of the middle ear, which is commonly the result of an upper respiratory infection (URI) and may be treated with tympanostomy tube insertion
[ot=ear; -itis=inflammation; med=middle; -ia=condition]

19

Otosclerosis

Progressive deafness secondary to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear
[ot/o= ear; scler=sclera (white of eye); -osis=abnormal condition]

20

Tinnitus

Ringing or tinkling noise heard constantly or intermittently in one or both ears, even in a quiet environment, that usually results from damage to inner ear structures associated with hearing

21

Vertigo

Sensation of moving around in space or a feeling of spinning or dizziness that usually results from inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium

22

Tonometry

Test to measure the pressure inside the eyes (intraocular pressure); used to screen for glaucoma
[ton/o=tension; -metry= act of measuring]

23

Visual acuity test

Standard eye examination to determine the smallest letters a person can read on a Snellen chart, or E-Chart, at a distance of 20 feet

24

Audiometry

Test that measures hearing acuity at various sound frequencies
[audi/o=hearing; -metry= act of measuring]

25

Otoscope

Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
[ot/o=ear; -scopy=visual examination]

26

Tuning fork test

Hearing test that use a tuning fork (instrument that produces a constant pitch when struck) that is struck and then placed against or near the bones on the side of the head to assess nerve and bone conduction of sound

27

Rinne

Evaluates bone conduction of sound in one ear at a time

28

Weber

Evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time

29

Cataract surgery

Excision of a lens affected by a cataract

30

Phacoemulsification

Excision of the lens by ultrasonic vibrations that break the lens into tiny particles, which are suctioned out of the eye; aka "small incision I cataract surgery (SICS)"

31

Iridectomy

Excision of a portion of the iris used to relieve intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma
[irid=iris; -ectomy= excision, removal]

32

Laser iridotomy

Laser surgery that creates an opening on the rim of the iris to allow aqueous humor to flow between the anterior and posterior chambers to relieve intraocular pressure that occurs as a result of glaucoma; is replacing iridectomy because it is a safer procedure
[irid/o=iris; -tomy=incision]

33

Laser photocoagulation

Use of a laser beam to seal leaking or hemorrhagic get retinal blood vessels to react diabetic retinopathy

34

Cochlear implant

Electronic transmitter surgically implanted into the cochlea of a deaf person to restore hearing
[cochle=cochlea; -ar=pertaining to]

35

Ear irrigation

Process of flushing the external ear canal with sterile water or sterile saline solution to treat blockages of a foreign body or cerulean (ear wax) impaction

36

Myringoplasty

Surgical repair of a perforated eardrum with a tissue graft to correct hearing loss; "aka tympanoplasty"
[myring/o=tympanic membrane (eardrum); -plasty=surgical repair]

37

Myringotomy

Incision of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to relieve pressure and drain fluid form the middle ear or to insert tympanostomy tubes in the eardrum via surgery
[myring/o=tympanic membrane (eardrum); -tomy=incision]

38

Achromatopsia

Congenital deficiency in color perception that is more common in men; aka "color blindness"
[a-=without, not; chromat=color; -opsia=vision]

39

Glaucoma

Condition in which the aqueous humor fails to drain properly and accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye, causing intraocular pressure (IOP). Increased IOP leads to degeneration and atrophy of the retina and optic nerve. 2 forms: open-angle and closed-angle. Eventually leads to vision loss and commonly, blindness. Treatment=eye drops (Miotics) that cause the pupil toe constrict permitting aqueous humor to escape from the eye, relieving pressure. If ineffective, surgery may be necessary.
*Open-angle: most common form, degenerative changes that cause congestion and reduce flow of aqueous humor through the canal of Schlemm. Painless but destroys peripheral vision, causing tunnel vision.
*Closed-angle: medical emergency, caused by an anatomically narrow angle between the iris and the cornea which prevents outflow of aqueous humor form the eye Intel the lymphatic system causing a sudden increase in IOP. Symptoms=severe pain, blurred vision, and photophobia.

40

Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

Aka "ear tubes" or "pressure-equalizing (PE) tubes. Plastic cylinders surgically inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and equalize pressure between the middle and outer ear. PE most commonly used in children who have recurrent ear infections that do not respond to antibiotics, or when fluid remains behind the eardrum. Outpatient surgery performed by an otolaryngologist while child is under general anesthesia. A small opening is made in the eardrum (tympanostomy or myringotomy) followed by insertion. Tube decreases the feeling the pressure in the ears, reduces pain, and allows air to enter the middle ear and fluid to flow out of the middle ear and I tot he ear canal. Post surgical recovery is usually rapid with little pain or symptoms. Tubes normally remain in the ears for 6-12 months and commonly fall out on their own, or may require surgical removal.

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