Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Esophagus Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Esophagus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Esophagus Deck (21):
1

The stratum basalis should not be more than ______ percent of the epithelial layer.

15

2

Sticking of pills can cause ___________.

esophagitis due to chemical irritation

3

What are some causes of esophagitis?

- Chemical injury (acids, alkalis, lye, alcohol, meds)
- Infection (candida, HSV)
- Immune-related diseases (EoE)
- Radiation (from cancer)
- Trauma

4

Nissen fundoplication is used to treat _______________.

refractory esophageal reflux; it involves wrapping part of the stomach around the LES to strengthen the sphincter and prevent reflux

5

PAS stains are used to identify ______________.

fungi

6

_______________ can lead to esophageal stricture.

Eosinophilic esophagitis

7

Mid-esophageal diverticula are associated with ____________.

TB infection in the mediastinum

8

Epiphrenic diverticula are associated with ______________.

hiatal hernias

9

What are Schatzki rings?

Esophageal strictures, most often due to GERD (thought to be protective)

10

Tracheo-esophageal fistulas can cause ___________.

recurrent pneumonia

11

In the U.S., the most common cause of esophageal varices is ______________; worldwide, however, it is _____________.

cirrhosis; schistosomiasis infection

12

Low-grade Barrett's is characterized by the ____________ appearance.

"picket-fence" (elongated cells with stretched-out nuclei)

13

High-grade Barrett's is characterized by _____________.

round nuclei with crowded glands

14

How is Barrett's managed?

- Without dysplasia: 3 yr monitoring
- Low-grade dysplasia: 1 yr monitoring
- High-grade dysplasia: surveillance 3 mth; resection; ablation

15

Barrett's can lead to _______-carcinoma.

adeno

16

True or false: esophageal adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer of the esophagus worldwide.

False. Squamous cell carcinoma

17

How common is esophagitis?

About 5% of adults have it.

18

What two inflammatory cells will be histologically visible in someone with esophagitis?

Neutrophils and eosinophils

19

_____________ can lead to the appearance of "corkscrew esophagus."

Diffuse esophageal spasm

20

What percent of people with GERD will develop Barrett's?

10%

21

The five-year survival of esophageal adenocarcinoma is _______.

only 25%

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