Flashcards in Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Esophagus Deck (21):
The stratum basalis should not be more than ______ percent of the epithelial layer.
Sticking of pills can cause ___________.
esophagitis due to chemical irritation
What are some causes of esophagitis?
- Chemical injury (acids, alkalis, lye, alcohol, meds)
- Infection (candida, HSV)
- Immune-related diseases (EoE)
- Radiation (from cancer)
Nissen fundoplication is used to treat _______________.
refractory esophageal reflux; it involves wrapping part of the stomach around the LES to strengthen the sphincter and prevent reflux
PAS stains are used to identify ______________.
_______________ can lead to esophageal stricture.
Mid-esophageal diverticula are associated with ____________.
TB infection in the mediastinum
Epiphrenic diverticula are associated with ______________.
What are Schatzki rings?
Esophageal strictures, most often due to GERD (thought to be protective)
Tracheo-esophageal fistulas can cause ___________.
In the U.S., the most common cause of esophageal varices is ______________; worldwide, however, it is _____________.
cirrhosis; schistosomiasis infection
Low-grade Barrett's is characterized by the ____________ appearance.
"picket-fence" (elongated cells with stretched-out nuclei)
High-grade Barrett's is characterized by _____________.
round nuclei with crowded glands
How is Barrett's managed?
- Without dysplasia: 3 yr monitoring
- Low-grade dysplasia: 1 yr monitoring
- High-grade dysplasia: surveillance 3 mth; resection; ablation
Barrett's can lead to _______-carcinoma.
True or false: esophageal adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer of the esophagus worldwide.
False. Squamous cell carcinoma
How common is esophagitis?
About 5% of adults have it.
What two inflammatory cells will be histologically visible in someone with esophagitis?
Neutrophils and eosinophils
_____________ can lead to the appearance of "corkscrew esophagus."
Diffuse esophageal spasm
What percent of people with GERD will develop Barrett's?