Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Stomach and Small Bowel Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Stomach and Small Bowel > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Upper GI: Pathology of the Stomach and Small Bowel Deck (20):
1

A three-week-old infant presents with poor feeding. On exam you palpate a firm, ovoid mass in his abdomen. What pathologic process led to this process?

Hyperplasia of pyloric muscularis propria; treat with splitting of the muscle (myotomy).

This is more common in males (4:1) and usually presents in the second or third week of life.

2

Stress-related mucosal disease morphologically resembles ___________.

acute gastritis (resulting most often from vasoconstriction ischemia)

3

In general, ______________ disease is more widespread.

stress-related mucosal

4

In which patients is stress-related mucosal disease common?

- Critically ill patients
- CNS-injured patients (Cushing's ulcers)
- Burns (Curling's ulcers)

5

Eosinophilic gastropathy results from exposure to _______________.

allergens (e.g., cow's milk)

6

What category of disease does celiac cause?

Lymphocytic gastropathy

7

___________ gastritis can lead to intestinal metaplasia.

Autoimmune

8

The most common type of benign gastric mass is ___________.

inflammatory polyp

9

Most MALT tumors are _________ and will transition to ____________.

B-cell lymphomas; DLBCL

10

Most ___________ tumors contain the c-kit oncogene.

GIST

11

What are the most common sources of damage to the stomach mucosal layer?

H. pylori
NSAIDs
Smoking
Alcohol

12

What features of H. pylori make it effective in gastric invasion?

(1) Urease to neutralize pH
(2) Flagella to move through mucus
(3) Adhesion proteins that bind to gastric foveolar cells

13

Adenocarcinoma and ulcers appear similar, but they have an important distinction. What is it?

Adenocarcinomas have a "heaped up" border with a non-purulent base, while ulcers have a cliff-edge (i.e., not heaped up) border with a purulent base.

14

Diffuse adenocarcinoma presents with the ___________ cell on histologic exam.

signet-ring

15

What molecular mutation is common in adenocarcinoma?

Wnt activation with loss of APC

16

True or false: trastuzumab can treat some adenocarcinomas.

True (drug targets Her2/neu found in breast cancer)

17

Helicobacter elimination can cure _____________!

MALTomas

18

What is the classic histologic presentation of carcinoid cancer?

Nests of monomorphic cells

19

True or false: GIST tumors are diffuse.

False. They are localized expansions of interstitial cells of Cajal.

20

How do GIST tumors appear under the microscope?

Because they are mesenchymal cells, they are spindly and elongated – almost like smooth muscle cells with large nuclei.

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