Disorders of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium (Endocrine system) Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Disorders of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium (Endocrine system) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium (Endocrine system) Deck (16):
1

Why is calcium physiologically important?

-muscle contraction
-neuronal excitation
-enzyme activity
-blood clotting

2

Why is Phosphate physiologically important?

-required for ATP
-intracellular signalling

3

Why is Magnesium physiologically important?

-cofactor for ATP
-neuromuscular excitability
-enzyme function
-regulates ion channels

4

What are the 4 factors / pillars of homeostasis?

1) Intake
2) Storage
3) Excretion / loss
4) Tissue Redistrabution

5

What are the 2 controlling factors of calcium levels?

1) ParaThyroid Hormone
2) Vitamin D

6

Which fraction of the total plasma calcium is physiologically active?

- the ionised fraction
(it is fundamental for the release of PTH)

Total Ca = Ionised + bound + complexed.

When calcium is bound to albumin it cannot interact in reactions/

7

What is the effect of Acidosis on the fraction of bound calcium?

Acidosis reduces the amount of bound calcium and increases the fraction of ionised calcium

8

What is the effect of alkalosis of the fraction of bound calcium?

Alkalosis increases the bound calcium and decreases ionised calcium

9

What could affect the levels of calcium in the blood?

1) PTH and Vitamin D
2) Bone Metastases
3) GI (malabsorption)
4) Kidney (excess excretion / reabsorption)
5) Diet

10

What is the role of Magnesium and PTH?

Magnesium helps PTH to be secreted from the para thyroid gland

11

What are the causes of HYPOcalcaemia?

-Hypoproteinaemia (Ca binds to protein)
-Vit D deficiency
-HypoParaThyroidism
-inadequate intake of Calcium.

12

What are the causes of HYPERcalcaemia?

-HyperParaThyroidism
-Malignancy (lytic)
-Drugs
-Vit D excess

13

What are some of the causes of Phosphate deficiency?

-HyperParaThyroidism
-Excess loss via renal tubular damage, GI (not absorbed), diabetes.
-Poor intake

14

What are some the of the symptoms of phosphate deficiency?

-Haemolysis
-Thrombocytopenia
-muscle weakness
-respiratory muscle failure
-confusion / irritability

15

What are the causes of Magnesium depletion?

Renal (excretion)
Drugs
GI (malabsorption)
Insufficient intake

16

What are the effects of Mg depletion?

-reduced respiration
-impaired DNA synthesis
-Hypocalcaemia (as Mg stimulates release of PTH)
-cardiac irritability
-CNS problem
-Muscle weakness

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