Flashcards in Disorders of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium (Endocrine system) Deck (16):
Why is calcium physiologically important?
Why is Phosphate physiologically important?
-required for ATP
Why is Magnesium physiologically important?
-cofactor for ATP
-regulates ion channels
What are the 4 factors / pillars of homeostasis?
3) Excretion / loss
4) Tissue Redistrabution
What are the 2 controlling factors of calcium levels?
1) ParaThyroid Hormone
2) Vitamin D
Which fraction of the total plasma calcium is physiologically active?
- the ionised fraction
(it is fundamental for the release of PTH)
Total Ca = Ionised + bound + complexed.
When calcium is bound to albumin it cannot interact in reactions/
What is the effect of Acidosis on the fraction of bound calcium?
Acidosis reduces the amount of bound calcium and increases the fraction of ionised calcium
What is the effect of alkalosis of the fraction of bound calcium?
Alkalosis increases the bound calcium and decreases ionised calcium
What could affect the levels of calcium in the blood?
1) PTH and Vitamin D
2) Bone Metastases
3) GI (malabsorption)
4) Kidney (excess excretion / reabsorption)
What is the role of Magnesium and PTH?
Magnesium helps PTH to be secreted from the para thyroid gland
What are the causes of HYPOcalcaemia?
-Hypoproteinaemia (Ca binds to protein)
-Vit D deficiency
-inadequate intake of Calcium.
What are the causes of HYPERcalcaemia?
-Vit D excess
What are some of the causes of Phosphate deficiency?
-Excess loss via renal tubular damage, GI (not absorbed), diabetes.
What are some the of the symptoms of phosphate deficiency?
-respiratory muscle failure
-confusion / irritability
What are the causes of Magnesium depletion?