Disorders of growth 1&2 Flashcards Preview

Pathology (m) > Disorders of growth 1&2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of growth 1&2 Deck (48):
1

Neoplasm is...

A new growth

2

Neoplasia is...

The process in which a neoplasm is formed

3

Tumour is another word for...

Neoplasm

4

How do we classify behaviour?

Benign and malignant

5

Aetiological means looking at...

If the tumour is caused by environmental or inheritance factors

6

How do benign tumours grow?

Through expansion

7

How do malignant tumours grow?

Infiltrates into a tissue it surrounds and spreads to other parts of body

8

Define primary tumour...

Original malignant tumour

9

Define secondary tumour...

'Offspring' of a primary malignant tumour

10

Metastasis means...

Secondary tumour
OR
Process by which a secondary tumour is formed

11

What are the two ways malignant tumours spread...

Local or distant

12

Local invasion means...

Direct invasion of local tissues and get stuck to things surrounding their anatomy

13

Distant invasion means...

Via metastasis/lymph/blood

14

Name the routes of metastasis...

Lymphatics
Blood
Transcolemic
Along epithelium lined spaces
With epithelium

15

Describe the route of metastasis via lymphatics...

Directly invades lymphatics
Tumour emboli filtered out
Tumour emboli then grows in LN

16

Describe the route of metastasis via blood...

Tumour may invade blood vessels
Emboli filtered out by capillary beds and lodge themselves in the liver and the lung
Sarcoma commonly spread by the blood

17

Describe route of metastasis via transcolemic spread...

Occurs via body cavities

18

Example of metastasis via epithelial lined spaces...

Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of lung

19

Examples of metastasis within epithelium...

Paget's disease of nipple, vulva and anus

20

Name the particular types of metastasis...

Lymph nodes
Liver (common site of metastasis)
Lungs (common site of metastasis)
Bone (breast can spread to bone)
Brain
Endocrines
Skin

21

Name the 3 types of malignant tumours...

Cancer (any malignant tumour)
Carcinoma (a malignant tumour of the epithelial tissue)
Sarcoma (a malignant tumour of stromal tissue)

22

Oma means...
Sarcoma means...

Benign
Malignant

23

Name some benign epithelium tumours...

Papilloma (classically used in skin lesions)
Adenoma (glandular differentiation)
Cystadenoma (glandular and cystic elements, classically used in the ovary)
Polyp (mass- can be inflammatory)

24

Names given to tumours depend on what?

Site
Behaviour
Histogenesis

25

Leukaemia is...

A neoplastic proliferation of haemopoeitc stem cells (blood born)

26

Lymphoma is...

malignant proliferation of cells of lymphoid tissue (cancer within the lymph nodes)

27

2 types of lymphoma...

Hodgkins lymphoma
Non-hodgkins lymphoma

28

Teratoma...

arises from "totipotential" cells, producing tissues representing all three germ cell layers
Ovary and testes

29

Teratoma of the ovary are termed...

Mature cystic teratomas (benign)

*Immature more likely to recur*

30

Precursor malignant conditions are...

Precursor lesions (neoplastic or non-neoplastic)

31

Non-neoplastic premalignant conditions examples...

*chronic inflammation
e.g. varicose leg ulcers can lead to skin cancer
* cirrhosis of the liver result of chronic inflam and scaring of tissue
e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma
*chronic ulcerative colitis result of chronic inflam and damage to epithelium
e.g. adenocarcinoma of the large intestine
*xeroderma pigmentosum
e.g.squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

32

Neoplastic premalignant condition examples...

*familial polyposis coli- if you have full form FAP you will get colon cancer, carcinoma is inevitable
1000s of large intestinal adenomas

*intra-epithelial neoplasia: broad term that covers premalignant stage of many tumours

33

Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia has stages are...

Normal
CIN1
CIN2
CIN3
Beyond = invasive carcinoma
Basis of cervical screening programme

34

Tumour grading is...

How bad the tumour looks under microscope- subjective view from pathologist

35

Tumour staging...

Description of how far the tumour has spread

36

Tumour grading only relevant for...

Malignant tumours

37

Tumour grading is spread into how many grades?

Grade 1 well differentiated
to
Grade 3/4 poor differentiated

38

Problems with tumour grading?

Subjective
Poor reproducibility
Appearances vary from area to area within most tumours
Need different criteria for each histogenesis only modest predictor of outcome

39

Tumour staging is based on 3 main features...

Size of primary tumour
Extent of lymph node disease
Any blood-borne metastasis
TNM

40

T =

Size of tumour T1-T4

41

N =

Extent of lymph node involvement N0-N3

42

M =

Any evidence of metastasis at a distant site M0-M1

43

Size varies with what?

Site of tumour

44

Effects of tumours in general...

Displacement or destruction of normal structures
Excess “normal” function
Paraneoplastic phenomena

45

Effects of benign tumours...

Mechanical pressure
Obstruction
Ulceration
Infarction of pedunculated tumour
Infection
Hormone production
Rupture of cystic neoplasm
Malignant change

46

Effects of malignant tumours...

Tissue destruction
Haemorrhage
Secondary Infection
Cachexia (weight loss)
Pain
Anemia
Paraneoplastic syndromes

47

Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes


Peripheral neuropathy
Thrombophlebitis migrans
Acanthosis nigricans
Nephrotic syndrome
Finger clubbing
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis

48

How are paraneoplastic syndromes caused?

By ectopic hormone production