Flashcards in Disorders of growth 1&2 Deck (48):
A new growth
The process in which a neoplasm is formed
Tumour is another word for...
How do we classify behaviour?
Benign and malignant
Aetiological means looking at...
If the tumour is caused by environmental or inheritance factors
How do benign tumours grow?
How do malignant tumours grow?
Infiltrates into a tissue it surrounds and spreads to other parts of body
Define primary tumour...
Original malignant tumour
Define secondary tumour...
'Offspring' of a primary malignant tumour
Process by which a secondary tumour is formed
What are the two ways malignant tumours spread...
Local or distant
Local invasion means...
Direct invasion of local tissues and get stuck to things surrounding their anatomy
Distant invasion means...
Name the routes of metastasis...
Along epithelium lined spaces
Describe the route of metastasis via lymphatics...
Directly invades lymphatics
Tumour emboli filtered out
Tumour emboli then grows in LN
Describe the route of metastasis via blood...
Tumour may invade blood vessels
Emboli filtered out by capillary beds and lodge themselves in the liver and the lung
Sarcoma commonly spread by the blood
Describe route of metastasis via transcolemic spread...
Occurs via body cavities
Example of metastasis via epithelial lined spaces...
Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of lung
Examples of metastasis within epithelium...
Paget's disease of nipple, vulva and anus
Name the particular types of metastasis...
Liver (common site of metastasis)
Lungs (common site of metastasis)
Bone (breast can spread to bone)
Name the 3 types of malignant tumours...
Cancer (any malignant tumour)
Carcinoma (a malignant tumour of the epithelial tissue)
Sarcoma (a malignant tumour of stromal tissue)
Name some benign epithelium tumours...
Papilloma (classically used in skin lesions)
Adenoma (glandular differentiation)
Cystadenoma (glandular and cystic elements, classically used in the ovary)
Polyp (mass- can be inflammatory)
Names given to tumours depend on what?
A neoplastic proliferation of haemopoeitc stem cells (blood born)
malignant proliferation of cells of lymphoid tissue (cancer within the lymph nodes)
2 types of lymphoma...
arises from "totipotential" cells, producing tissues representing all three germ cell layers
Ovary and testes
Teratoma of the ovary are termed...
Mature cystic teratomas (benign)
*Immature more likely to recur*
Precursor malignant conditions are...
Precursor lesions (neoplastic or non-neoplastic)
Non-neoplastic premalignant conditions examples...
e.g. varicose leg ulcers can lead to skin cancer
* cirrhosis of the liver result of chronic inflam and scaring of tissue
e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma
*chronic ulcerative colitis result of chronic inflam and damage to epithelium
e.g. adenocarcinoma of the large intestine
e.g.squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
Neoplastic premalignant condition examples...
*familial polyposis coli- if you have full form FAP you will get colon cancer, carcinoma is inevitable
1000s of large intestinal adenomas
*intra-epithelial neoplasia: broad term that covers premalignant stage of many tumours
Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia has stages are...
Beyond = invasive carcinoma
Basis of cervical screening programme
Tumour grading is...
How bad the tumour looks under microscope- subjective view from pathologist
Description of how far the tumour has spread
Tumour grading only relevant for...
Tumour grading is spread into how many grades?
Grade 1 well differentiated
Grade 3/4 poor differentiated
Problems with tumour grading?
Appearances vary from area to area within most tumours
Need different criteria for each histogenesis only modest predictor of outcome
Tumour staging is based on 3 main features...
Size of primary tumour
Extent of lymph node disease
Any blood-borne metastasis
Size of tumour T1-T4
Extent of lymph node involvement N0-N3
Any evidence of metastasis at a distant site M0-M1
Size varies with what?
Site of tumour
Effects of tumours in general...
Displacement or destruction of normal structures
Excess “normal” function
Effects of benign tumours...
Infarction of pedunculated tumour
Rupture of cystic neoplasm
Effects of malignant tumours...
Cachexia (weight loss)
Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis