Flashcards in Disorders of Growth and Differentiation Deck (24):
What is the difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia?
Hypertrophy = growth in cell SIZE
Hyperplasia = growth in cell NUMBER
List the stages of the mammary cycle including the pre-cycle stages.
What type of growth is the mammary gland an example of?
Give an example of pathological hyperplasia.
How is hyperplasia involved in tissue repair?
What is meant by atrophy?
Decreased cell growth, either in number, size or both
Give two examples of physiological atrophy.
Thymus - reduction in medulla & cortex
Give three examples of pathological atrophy.
Muscle - fractures
Nerve - paraplegics
Blood supply - circulatory problems
Pressure - bedsores
Diet - annorexia
What is Turner's Syndrome?
Missing X chromosome
Only in females
Stunted growth, inability to have children, short and webbed neck & lack of breasts
Name a gene that is important in growth and development.
Where is SHOX expressed in the body?
What characterises Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome?
2x copies of paternal chromosome
IGF 2 increased
What is Achondroplasia?
Does a loss of FGFR3 increase or decrease growth?
What characterises pituitary gigantism?
Growth hormone increased
Often results from pituitary tumours
Name a few factors that affect determination of differentiation.
Paracrine growth factors
What is metaplasia?
Change of differentiated cell type
Usually epithelial cells changing to mesenchymal cells or vice versa
What is dysplasia?
Increased cell division
What is neoplasia?
Uncoordinated and excessive cell proliferation that persists even after the stimulus is withdrawn leading to cancer
What is genesis?
Failure of an organ to develop during embryonic growth (due to absence of premordial tissue (the 3 germ layers)
What is atresia?
The absence of a lumen in a passage of the body, mainly a vessel
What is hypoplasia?
Underdevelopment of/incomplete development of an organ (or a tissue)
What is an ectopic / a heterotopia?
A small area of mature tissue from one organ present in another