Disorders of Growth and Differentiation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Disorders of Growth and Differentiation Deck (24):
1

What is the difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia?

Hypertrophy = growth in cell SIZE
Hyperplasia = growth in cell NUMBER

2

List the stages of the mammary cycle including the pre-cycle stages.

Embryonic
Pre-pubescent
Post-pubescent
Mature
Pregnancy
Lactation
Involution

3

What type of growth is the mammary gland an example of?

Physiological hyperplasia

4

Give an example of pathological hyperplasia.

Psoriasis

5

How is hyperplasia involved in tissue repair?

Angiogenesis
Wound healing
Liver regeneration

6

What is meant by atrophy?

Decreased cell growth, either in number, size or both

7

Give two examples of physiological atrophy.

Age
Thymus - reduction in medulla & cortex

8

Give three examples of pathological atrophy.

Muscle - fractures
Nerve - paraplegics
Blood supply - circulatory problems
Pressure - bedsores
Diet - annorexia

9

What is Turner's Syndrome?

Missing X chromosome
Only in females
Stunted growth, inability to have children, short and webbed neck & lack of breasts

10

Name a gene that is important in growth and development.

SHOX

11

Where is SHOX expressed in the body?

Chondrocytes

12

What characterises Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome?

Large tongue
2x copies of paternal chromosome
Decreased H19
IGF 2 increased
OVERGROWTH

13

What is Achondroplasia?

Shortened limbs

14

Does a loss of FGFR3 increase or decrease growth?

Increase

15

What characterises pituitary gigantism?

IGF1 increased
Growth hormone increased
Often results from pituitary tumours

16

Name a few factors that affect determination of differentiation.

Hormones
External factors
Paracrine growth factors
Autocrine factors

17

What is metaplasia?

Change of differentiated cell type
Usually epithelial cells changing to mesenchymal cells or vice versa

18

What is dysplasia?

Increased cell division
Degreased differentiation
Pre-malignant

19

What is neoplasia?

Uncoordinated and excessive cell proliferation that persists even after the stimulus is withdrawn leading to cancer

20

What is genesis?

Failure of an organ to develop during embryonic growth (due to absence of premordial tissue (the 3 germ layers)

21

What is atresia?

The absence of a lumen in a passage of the body, mainly a vessel

22

What is hypoplasia?

Underdevelopment of/incomplete development of an organ (or a tissue)

23

What is an ectopic / a heterotopia?

A small area of mature tissue from one organ present in another

24

What is maldifferentiation?

The failure of normal differentiation and therefore the persistence of primitive embryological features