Flashcards in Divisions Of The Nervous System And The Structure And Function Of Neurons Deck (60):
What is the Nervous system made up of?
-The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
-The peripheral Nervous system (somatic and autonomic)
What is the Endocrine system made up of?
What are Neurons?
The cells of the nervous system
What is the Nervous system?
Complex network of Neurons that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord, to various parts of the body.
What does the Nervous system allow us to do?
Comprehend and respond appropriately to the world around us.
How does the Nervous system allow us to perceive, comprehend an respond appropriately to the world around us?
It ones this by taking in sensory information from the environment and sending it to the brain and pineal cord to be processed, so that a response can be generated
What is the process of the Nervous system?
Sensory input gets integrated into the central Nervous system which produces motor output in the effector
What is the division of the Nervous system?
Human Nervous system
-> central Nervous system and the peripheral Nervous system
Peripheral Nervous system
-> autonomic Nervous system and the somatic Nervous system
Central Nervous system
-> spinal cord and the brain
Autonomic Nervous system
-> sympathetic Nervous system and the parasympathetic Nervous system
What is the central Nervous system responsible for?
All of life's functions and consists of the brain and spinal cord
What does the spinal cord do?
It receives and transmits information to and from the brain to the peripheral Nervous system
What does the brain do?
Maintains life, interprets sensory information, and is involved in higher functions/psychological processes
What is the peripheral Nervous system made up of and responsible for?
Made up of 31 spinal nerves, and is responsible for sending information from the central erbium system to the body, and vice versa
What is the peripheral Nervous system made up of?
Autonomic Nervous system and the somatic Nervous system
What role does the autonomic Nervous system play?
An important role in he homeostasis, which regulates our internal environment, including processes like our body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure.
What is the autonomic Nervous system made up of?
The sympathetic Nervous system and the parasympathetic Nervous system
What does the sympathetic Nervous system do?
Increase bodily activities
What does the parasympathetic Nervous system do?
Maintain normal bodily activity.
Decreases bodily activities after being increased by the SNS
What is the Somatic Nervous system made up off?
Sensory or afferent pathway and the Motor or efferent pathways
What is the function of the sensory/afferent pathway?
Uses Information from sensory receptors of the body (touch, pain, pressure etc) and transmits sensory Neurons to the central Nervous system to be processed
What is the function of the motor/efferent pathway?
Uses Information from the central Nervous system (commands to move etc.) and transmits them by motor neurone in the spinal nerves, out to the skeletal muscles of the body.
Describe the structure of a sensory neuron
-Cell body appears to be located in the middle of the neuron aside the axon
-usually have shorter axons
Describe the structure of a relay neuron
-Cell body in middle of neuron
Describe the structure of a motor neuron
-multipolar (many dendrites)
-cell body located at one end of neuron
-long axons (outside of CBS) which end in Effector (muscle or gland)
Describe what an axon terminal looks like
The roots of a tree
Describe what dendrites look like
Describe what the axons look like
Repeated small sections along the length of the neuron
What does the cell body look like
What is the function of the sensory neuron
-moves information away from a central organ or point and relays messages from the sensory receptors to the central Nervous system
Where is the somatic neuron found?
In the somatic division of the peripheral Nervous system
Where is the relay neuron found?
In the central Nervous system, therefore they are the neural cells of the bran and spinal cord
What is the function of the relay neuron?
Relays information from sensory Neurons to motor Neurons and vice Versa
Where is the motor Neurons found?
In the somatic division of the peripheral Nervous system
What is the function of the motor Neurons
-Moves information towards a central organ or point
-Relays messages from the central Nervous system to the muscles,organs and glands etc.
What is another name for sensory Neurons?
What is another name for a relay neuron?
What is another name for a motor neuron?
What are pulses of electricity which are conducted throughout the system known as?
What are action potentials?
Pulses of electricity that are conducted throughout the system
What speed can information travel through Neurons?
Speeds exceeding 100 meters per second
What is the flow of impulses?
Start at the dendrites then travel through the cell body and along the axon to the axon terminal
What is a synapse?
A very small gap between the end of a neuron and the dendrites of another neuron
Define the function of neurotransmitters
Carrys information by chemicals from one neuron to the next
What is a synaptic transmission?
Where neurotransmitters are released from one neuron, and bind to the next neuron to pass on the information.
Outline the first stage of the synaptic transmission
-Vesicles in the pre-synaptic neuron release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
Outline the second stage of the synaptic transmission
-Neurotransmitters bind to receptors in the ports-synaptic neuron and activates them
Outline the third stage of the synaptic transmission
-excess neurotransmitter is taken up by the pre-synaptic neuron in a process called reuptake
Outline the fourth stage of the synaptic transmission
-enzymes are released to break down the remaining neurotransmitters
Outline the fifth stage of synaptic transmission
-vesicles are replenished with new and reused neurotransmitters
Where does action potential travel along?
The axon of the pre-synaptic neuron
What does action potential do?
Triggers the nerve ending of the pre-synaptic neuron to release neurotransmitters from vesicles within the terminal buttons
What do neurotransmitters do in the synaptic cleft?
Diffuse and bind to record sites in the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron
What do Ion channels do during synaptic transmission?
Open in the post-synaptic membrane which lead to either depolarisation or hyperpolarisation
What are example of Excitatory neurotransmitters
Glutamate an noradrenaline
What do excitatory neurotransmitters allow?
More positively charged ions inside the post-synaptic neuron (making the inside of the cell less negative), which will then make it more likely that action potential will occur - possible leading to depolarisation, thus increasing neural activity
What neurotransmitter does this apply to?
'The more active the pre-synaptic neuron is, the more active the post-synaptic neuron will be'
Give an example of Inhibitory neurotransmitters
What do inhibitory neurotransmitters allow?
More negatively charged ions (i.e C1-) inside the post-synaptic neuron (making the inside of the cell more negative), which will then make it less likely that action potential will occur - resulting in hyperpolarisation, thus decreasing neural activity
What neurotransmitter makes the inside of a cell less negative?
What neurotransmitter makes the inside of a cell more negative