Divisions Of The Nervous System And The Structure And Function Of Neurons Flashcards Preview

Psychology 1- Biopsychology > Divisions Of The Nervous System And The Structure And Function Of Neurons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Divisions Of The Nervous System And The Structure And Function Of Neurons Deck (60):
1

What is the Nervous system made up of?

-The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
-The peripheral Nervous system (somatic and autonomic)
-Neurons
-neurochemistry

2

What is the Endocrine system made up of?

-Glands
-Hormones

3

What are Neurons?

The cells of the nervous system

4

What is the Nervous system?

Complex network of Neurons that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord, to various parts of the body.

5

What does the Nervous system allow us to do?

Perceive
Comprehend and respond appropriately to the world around us.

6

How does the Nervous system allow us to perceive, comprehend an respond appropriately to the world around us?

It ones this by taking in sensory information from the environment and sending it to the brain and pineal cord to be processed, so that a response can be generated

7

What is the process of the Nervous system?

Sensory input gets integrated into the central Nervous system which produces motor output in the effector

8

What is the division of the Nervous system?

Human Nervous system
-> central Nervous system and the peripheral Nervous system

Peripheral Nervous system
-> autonomic Nervous system and the somatic Nervous system

Central Nervous system
-> spinal cord and the brain

Autonomic Nervous system
-> sympathetic Nervous system and the parasympathetic Nervous system

9

What is the central Nervous system responsible for?

All of life's functions and consists of the brain and spinal cord

10

What does the spinal cord do?

It receives and transmits information to and from the brain to the peripheral Nervous system

11

What does the brain do?

Maintains life, interprets sensory information, and is involved in higher functions/psychological processes

12

What is the peripheral Nervous system made up of and responsible for?

Made up of 31 spinal nerves, and is responsible for sending information from the central erbium system to the body, and vice versa

13

What is the peripheral Nervous system made up of?

Autonomic Nervous system and the somatic Nervous system

14

What role does the autonomic Nervous system play?

An important role in he homeostasis, which regulates our internal environment, including processes like our body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure.

15

What is the autonomic Nervous system made up of?

The sympathetic Nervous system and the parasympathetic Nervous system

16

What does the sympathetic Nervous system do?

Increase bodily activities

17

What does the parasympathetic Nervous system do?

Maintain normal bodily activity.
Decreases bodily activities after being increased by the SNS

18

What is the Somatic Nervous system made up off?

Sensory or afferent pathway and the Motor or efferent pathways

19

What is the function of the sensory/afferent pathway?

Uses Information from sensory receptors of the body (touch, pain, pressure etc) and transmits sensory Neurons to the central Nervous system to be processed

20

What is the function of the motor/efferent pathway?

Uses Information from the central Nervous system (commands to move etc.) and transmits them by motor neurone in the spinal nerves, out to the skeletal muscles of the body.

21

Describe the structure of a sensory neuron

-Unipolar
-Cell body appears to be located in the middle of the neuron aside the axon
-Long dendrites
-usually have shorter axons

22

Describe the structure of a relay neuron

-Bipolar/multipolar
-Cell body in middle of neuron
-short dendrite
-Short axons

23

Describe the structure of a motor neuron

-multipolar (many dendrites)
-cell body located at one end of neuron
-short dendrites
-long axons (outside of CBS) which end in Effector (muscle or gland)

24

Describe what an axon terminal looks like

The roots of a tree

25

Describe what dendrites look like

Tree branches

26

Describe what the axons look like

Repeated small sections along the length of the neuron

27

What does the cell body look like

An eye

28

What is the function of the sensory neuron

-moves information away from a central organ or point and relays messages from the sensory receptors to the central Nervous system

29

Where is the somatic neuron found?

In the somatic division of the peripheral Nervous system

30

Where is the relay neuron found?

In the central Nervous system, therefore they are the neural cells of the bran and spinal cord

31

What is the function of the relay neuron?

Relays information from sensory Neurons to motor Neurons and vice Versa

32

Where is the motor Neurons found?

In the somatic division of the peripheral Nervous system

33

What is the function of the motor Neurons

-Moves information towards a central organ or point
-Relays messages from the central Nervous system to the muscles,organs and glands etc.

34

What is another name for sensory Neurons?

Afferent Neurons

35

What is another name for a relay neuron?

Interneuron

36

What is another name for a motor neuron?

Efferent neuron

37

What are pulses of electricity which are conducted throughout the system known as?

Action potentials

38

What are action potentials?

Pulses of electricity that are conducted throughout the system

39

What speed can information travel through Neurons?

Speeds exceeding 100 meters per second

40

What is the flow of impulses?

Start at the dendrites then travel through the cell body and along the axon to the axon terminal

41

What is a synapse?

A very small gap between the end of a neuron and the dendrites of another neuron

42

Define the function of neurotransmitters

Carrys information by chemicals from one neuron to the next

43

What is a synaptic transmission?

Where neurotransmitters are released from one neuron, and bind to the next neuron to pass on the information.

44

Outline the first stage of the synaptic transmission

-Vesicles in the pre-synaptic neuron release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
.

45

Outline the second stage of the synaptic transmission

-Neurotransmitters bind to receptors in the ports-synaptic neuron and activates them

46

Outline the third stage of the synaptic transmission

-excess neurotransmitter is taken up by the pre-synaptic neuron in a process called reuptake

47

Outline the fourth stage of the synaptic transmission

-enzymes are released to break down the remaining neurotransmitters

48

Outline the fifth stage of synaptic transmission

-vesicles are replenished with new and reused neurotransmitters

49

Where does action potential travel along?

The axon of the pre-synaptic neuron

50

What does action potential do?

Triggers the nerve ending of the pre-synaptic neuron to release neurotransmitters from vesicles within the terminal buttons

51

What do neurotransmitters do in the synaptic cleft?

Diffuse and bind to record sites in the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron

52

What do Ion channels do during synaptic transmission?

Open in the post-synaptic membrane which lead to either depolarisation or hyperpolarisation

53

What are example of Excitatory neurotransmitters

Glutamate an noradrenaline

54

What do excitatory neurotransmitters allow?

More positively charged ions inside the post-synaptic neuron (making the inside of the cell less negative), which will then make it more likely that action potential will occur - possible leading to depolarisation, thus increasing neural activity

55

What neurotransmitter does this apply to?

'The more active the pre-synaptic neuron is, the more active the post-synaptic neuron will be'

Excitatory neurotransmitters

56

Give an example of Inhibitory neurotransmitters

GABA

57

What do inhibitory neurotransmitters allow?

More negatively charged ions (i.e C1-) inside the post-synaptic neuron (making the inside of the cell more negative), which will then make it less likely that action potential will occur - resulting in hyperpolarisation, thus decreasing neural activity

58

What neurotransmitter makes the inside of a cell less negative?

Excitatory neurotransmitter

59

What neurotransmitter makes the inside of a cell more negative

Inhibitory neurotransmitter

60

What is Summation?

The net calculation of the EPSP (excitation neurotransmitter) and the IPSP (inhibitory neurotransmitter) potentials